before Mesopotamia, people lived as hunter-gatherers. their whole lives were about finding food and surviving. most of the time they didn't even know when or what their next meal would be.
in time the hunter-gatherers found fertile rich land that they could farm on. The land was so rich because it was in between the Tigris and Euphrates river, it is called the fertile crescent. so when it rained the two rivers would flood making great growing soil.
The Mesopotamians next started to domesticate animals. They trained, tamed and fed them, until they were of no use to then anymore, after that they were killed for food, and their fur was used for clothing.
as time went on the Mesopotamians started to trade. they traded with other nations so that they could get the necessities that they are lacking.
Everyone needs to play a role in society. In Mesopotamia there were jobs like, priest/priestesses, scribes, farmers, and artisans.
Culture is what defines a civilization. Mesopotamia's culture is their literature, the gods the worship, the clothes they wear.