During the Golden Ages of Islam, to groups emerged known as the Shiites and Sunnis. The Sunnis believe that the successor of Muhammad should be a male worthy of that title and most people in Islam are Sunnis. The Shiites believe that Muhammad prophet must be the next male from his direct bloodline. They constantly fight because of their different views on who should be Muhammad successor.
In Islam, Muslims believe that there's only one God known as Allah and they pray to them many times a day. Muslims follow the rules of the five pillars and live by it. Muhammad was the prophet who had visions of Allah and started a movement. He went to many different places, trying to spread his message and a lot of people converted to Islam because of it. To this day, people practice Islam in many parts of the world.
Mecca was Muhammad's native land, it's known to be the city of profit. Every year, Muslims travel far and wide just to get to Mecca since it's considered to be a holy city. On the way there, Muslims would help each other and give each other gifts in Caravans that they were riding together to get to Mecca. Rulers would do everything they could to help people get to Mecca during this time as well, whether it be fixing the roads or giving food for them to survive on.
The women within Islam would be able to do things that would not be allowed to other women and many other lands. They could own property, divorce their husbands if they wanted, and do their own business ventures. These women were have to be treated with sensitivity and respect. Though, the women would have to veil themselves as a sigh of modesty and to discourage the attention of other. The society was still patriarchal.
The Quran the holy book of Islam. In this certain time period, many people look to the Quran as the law in general as well. It was written by Muhammad's followers ending explained the visions that Muhammad had in greater detail. During that time, the Quran gave women rights that many others to have the privilege of having. Though, after some time the Quran would progressively limited those rights that women originally had and would place women under the control of their male Guardians more due to the way the Quran was interpreted.
When people go to Mecca bring a lot of business along so many Merchants would come to conduct business affairs. On land, merchants would travel on camels and Caravans. As trading became more popular in the major cities of the Islamic world, they would maintain caravanserais and have lodging for caravan merchants. The cities would also give out food, water, and care for their animals. They would make banks for merchants which would conduct business on a much larger scale and provide a larger range of services than before.