Linda Brown, an 8 year old girl went to a black only school, her father was not happy about this because to get to her school she went passed a white only school which was a lot closer to her home as well as having to cross a dangerous railway line, her school also didn't have as many textbooks, PE gear, art supplies and qualified teachers as they white school had.
Her father, Oliver Brown did not like this.
I don't like this.
So Oliver Brown formally protested to the school and began legal action.
SEPARATE but not EQUAL
Oliver Brown and 12 other parents brought a case in the US District Court against the Topeka Board of Education which provided separate schools for black and white children, because the believed their children were denied an education equal to that of a white child.
At first the parents were unsuccessful. But they were not alone in their complaint, parents from other states were testing the system. With the help of NAACP they took their case to the US Supreme Court. They prepared evidence to show that, in fact, black schools were not equal to white schools which made it clear that there was separation but not equality. On Monday 17th May 1954, Oliver Brown won his case and the doctrine of 'separate but equal' was defeated.
Boarder states, like Kansas and Arizona, accepted the decision as inevitable and began to actively desegregate their schools. Some States allowed a quota of blacks to attend school with white students. Other States, in the South simply refused to comply with the Supreme Courts decision.