King Luis XIV became the king of France after the death of Louis XIII. However, Cardinal Mazarin was the true ruler. He increased taxes and helped the power of the central government which made many nobles dislike him. This started the nobles revolt which failed, but caused King Louis to seek "revenge" since the nobles threatened him with his life.
After the death of Jean Baptiste Colbert King Louis XIV didn't manage the coutries economics nearly as well as Colbert did. He announced policies that slowed France's economic development and canceled the Edict of Nantes. This removed the protection of the religious freedom that the Huguenots had prior to this. This resulted in the loss of skilled workers.
One of Louis' weaknesses were his vanity. He often ate large feats at meals and called himself the "Sun King". However, he did an excellent job controlling the nobility. He required many nobles to live inside his palace. This made most of them dependent on him and overall increased his power. He was also a huge patron of the arts. Despite him being devoutly Christian the works he supported were often secular.
Over the length of Louis' Reign he started many wars. He gained several towns and the region of Franche-Comte in the invasion of the Spanish Netherlands. He continued to start several wars, but eventually a European wide alliance was formed against France to stop Louis' conquests. These wars overall weakened France and bought pain to the citizens of France.
Another war was started when the King of Spain died. He had promised Louis' grandson the throne of Spain. This sparked a war as this united the most powerful nations in Europe. England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal and several German and Italian States joined together against them in the War of Spanish Succession. This war was costly and ended with Louis' grandson keeping the throne so long as the two nations do not unite.
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After the death of Louis XIV he left a lasting legacy. Although he helped France become a formidable power, he brought lots of debt to the country due to his constant warfare. He also helped France become one of Europe's leaders in art, literature, and statesmanship.