Abd al-Rahman

Abd al-Rahman

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  • Abd al-Rahman III is Emir
  • I am emir.
  • Rebellion Groups
  • The Christian Forces of Léon
  • Abd al-Rahman III ruled the emirate of Córdoba from A.D. 912 to 961. He was 21 years old when he became emir and inherited his right to become emir from his grandfather, Abd Allah.
  • The Caliph
  • When Abd al-Rahman III became emir, he sought out rebel groups who had challenged his grandfather's reign. During his first year of rule, Abd al-Rahman III captured 70 rebel forts. The rebels, however, refused to yield and fought for several years. In 928, he finally succeeded in capturing Bobastro, the center of rebellion. Five years later, he captured Toledo, the last Muslim territory to resist his rule. Abd al-Rahman III now controlled all of Muslim Spain.
  • Ramiro II
  • During the summer of 913, forces from the Christian kingdom of Léon invaded Muslim territory and massacred the Muslim population in Talavera. Only in 920, when the Christian forces started moving south, did Abd al-Rahman III take action. As the Christian forces started moving south and closer to Córdoba, Abd al-Rahman III launched a series of counterattacks, which resulted in the defeat of the armies of Léon and its ally, Navarre.
  • Muslim Spain's Prosperity
  • In 929, during his struggle to gain complete control, Abd al-Rahman III took the title of caliph.
  • I am the caliph once and for all!
  • In 932, Ramiro II became king of Léon and immediately undertook attacks on Muslim territory. After seven years of campaign, he defeated Abd al-Rahman III's forces. In the final battle, Abd al-Rahman III barely managed to escape with his life. However, in 950, after Ramiro II's death, a Christian civil war broke out and Abd al-Rahman III saw an advantage. He mounted another military campaign and soon regained his losses.
  • Abd al-Rahman III's success in unifying Muslim Spain brought great prosperity. Córdoba became the greatest European center of culture and learning. Abd al-Rahman III was skilled at controlling the government of his vast kingdom and merged the systems of tax collection, military service, and law. He demanded complete loyalty without any exceptions. Under his rule, Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their religions freely. Muslims, Jews, and Christians lived together in harmony.
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