As a consequence places around California became ghost towns.
The apex of the rush was in 1852. 80,000 people immigrated into California during that year. These immigrants are known as the '49ers.
As the competition grew, xenophobia and racism towards foreign miners increased.
No gold for Chinese people!
By the end of 1849, the non-native population of California was 100,000. It was only 20,000 at the end of 1848 and less than 1,000 at the beginning of 1848.
There is going to be a Foreign Miners Tax. $20 monthly per miner. Besides that, the number of Chinese immigrants will be limited.
As gold was getting harder to find after 1850, the growing industrialization of mining drove more and more miners from independence into wage labor.
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