After a number of attempts by Crusaders to capture Egypt, Nur al-Din army led by Saladin seized Cairo in 1169 and forced the Crusader army to evacuate. Upon Shirkuh’s subsequent death, Saladin assumed control and began a campaign of attacks that accelerated after Nur al-Din’s death in 1174. In 1187, Saladin began a major campaign against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. His troops virtually destroyed the Christian army at the battle of Hattin, taking the city along with a large amount of territory. These defeats led to the Third Crusade which was led by King Richard. September 1191, Richard’s forces defeated those of Saladin in the battle of Arsuf; it would be the only true battle of the Third Crusade. In September 1192, Richard and Saladin signed a peace treaty that reestablished the Kingdom of Jerusalem and ended the Third Crusade.
The Third Crusade
Signing a Peace Treaty
Richard was born on 8 September 1157 in Oxford, son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He possessed considerable political and military ability. However, like his brothers, he fought with his family, joining them in the great rebellion against their father in 1173. In 1183 his brother Henry died, leaving Richard heir to the throne. As king, Richard mainly led the Third Crusade which ended in a peace treaty with the Turks. Later in his life Richard became imprisoned by Duke Leopand of Austria and was then given to the King of Germany who ransomed him off for 150000 marks. Eventually Richard was became King of England. Richard spent his last five years of life plotting against King Phillip II.
King Richard was imprisoned for the majority of his life.
Though the powerful Pope Innocent III called for a new Crusade in 1198, power struggles in and between Europe and Byzantium drove the Crusaders to divert their mission in order to topple the reigning Byzantine emperor, Alexius III. The new emperor’s attempts to submit the Byzantine church to Rome met with stiff resistance, and Alexius IV was strangled after a palace coup in early 1204. In response, the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople, and the Fourth Crusade ended with the conquest and looting of the magnificent Byzantine capital later that year. The remainder of the 13th century saw a variety of Crusades aimed not so much at toppling Muslim forces in the Holy Land as at combating any and all of those seen as enemies of the Christian faith.In the Fifth Crusade, declared by Pope Innocent III in 1216, the Crusaders attacked Egypt from both land and sea, but were forced to surrender to Muslim forces led by Al-Malik al-Kamil, in 1221. In 1229, Emperor Frederick II achieved the peaceful transfer of Jerusalem to Crusader control through negotiation with al-Kamil. However, the Muslims easily regained control of Jerusalem.
The Later Crusades
In the first movement, Nicholas, a shepherd from Germany tried to lead a group across the Alps and into Italy in the early spring of 1212. Nicholas promised that the sea would dry up before them and allow his followers to cross into the Holy Land. Splitting into two groups, the crowds took different roads through Switzerland. Two out of every three people on this ghastly journey died, while many others returned to their homes. About 7,000 arrived in Genoa in late August. They immediately marched to the harbor, expecting the sea to divide before them; when it did not many became bitterly disappointed. A few accused Nicholas of betraying them, while others settled down to wait for God to change his mind, since they believed that it was unthinkable he would not eventually do so. Many departed for Germany and Nicholas did not survive the second attempt across the Alps. A similar episode occurred in France when a kid named Stephen claimed that Jesus wrote a letter to him asking him to participate in the Crusades. Stephen gathered a large group but the group crumbled after a few days.
Many of the children crusaders didn't survive the trip
I am tired
Nicholas, you lied to us
The Reconquista was another important series of wars where Christian crusaders recaptured the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim rule. The Iberian Peninsula was originally under Umayyad Rule. Muslims, Jews and Christians lived in harmony however non Muslims had to pay a tribute. Christian Rulers on the Iberian Peninsula started capturing some land from Muslim rule. In 1002, when the Umayyad dynasty collapsed into several kingdoms, Christian rulers took advantage and started recapturing some land. Eventually by 1139, Portugal had become a Christian colony and by 1248 only Granada was Muslim territory. In the late 1440s King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella used the Inquisition to unify everyone of the Iberian Peninsula. The idea was to make sure everyone was Catholic, so there would be no religious based rebellions. Using the Inquisition and their fierce army , Granada fell into Christian Rule.
Only Catholics Allowed
Please sir, my family is in terrible condition.
Since you are Muslim, you will not be allowed here. Convert to Catholic Now or leave.
Liar, you are Muslim. Since you haven't admitted it we will have to execute you
Inquisition is a special clergy institution for combating or outlawing heresy. A defining characteristic of an inquisition is entrustment in judges who have high positions in a church. The Spanish Inquisition was extremely harsh. Judges would persecute people who they believed where practicing a religion other than Catholicism. Some non-Catholics were burnt on stakes because of their religious views. The Spanish Inquisition successfully filtered out non-Catholics.