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Classical Criminology - mid - eighteenth century - philosophers searching for more rational approaches to punishment - utilitarianism - in their behavior choices, people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain - people have free will to choose criminal or lawful solutions; crime is attractive & may be controlled by fear of punishment; certain punishment will deter criminal behavior - demonic criminology - it was believed that when someone commits a crime, they are possessed. Punishment - torture
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) was one of the first scholars to develop a systematic understanding of why people commit crime
Positivist Criminology - nineteenth century - positivism - use of the scientific method to conduct research; predicting & explaining social phenomena in a logical manner; empirical verification - abnormality in the human mind was being linked to criminal behavior patterns - it was believed the shape of the skull was a key determinant of behavior
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) considered the founder of sociology, argued that societies pass through stages that can be grounded on the basis of how people try to understand the world in which they live
Sociological Criminology - the influence of social factors on the propensity to commit crime was studied - age, sex, season, climate, population, poverty, alcohol consumption are all related to criminality - crime is normal & inevitable - crime paves the way for social change
L.A.J. Quetelet & Emile Durkheim - pioneering sociologists who used social statistics that were being developed in Europe to study crime
Conflict Criminology - early twentieth century - criminologists began to analyze the social conditions in the United States that promoted class conflict and crime - economic system produces the conditions that support a high crime rate
Karl Marx (1818-1883) was convinced that the character of every civilization is determined by its mode of production
Developmental Criminology - 1940s/50s - Gluecks' studies integrated sociological, psychological, and economic elements in their view of crime causation - personal and social factors related to persistent offending: quality of discipline and emotional ties with parents - physical and mental factors play a role in determining behavior - their vision integrated biological, social, and psychological elements. It suggested that the initiation and continuity of a criminal career was developmental process influenced by both internal & external situations, conditions, and circumstances
Sheldon & Eleanor Glueck - husband and wife team of criminologists and researchers at Harvard. They conducted numerous studies of delinquent and criminal behavior.
Contemporary Criminology - these various schools of criminology have developed over 200 years, and are constantly evolving.
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