In family-based communities, families can't produce some good themselves so they trade with other communities. A family-based community can have 15 to 20 members. The family works together to clear the fields, plant seeds, and harvest crops.
May I give you these berries for your wheat? We cannot produce wheat at my community
Villages joined together for needed help with things like flood control, mining, and protection. They mined for things like iron and gold. They mined it so they could then sell it. Villagers protected themselves by building big, strong walls. They also protected each other when family-based communities joined together.
Yeah, I am very glad we built this wall, or we would all be dead.
This wall is the only thing that is protecting us from the outside world.
The influence of iron led to faster and efficient farming. Specialization is when a person concentrates heavily on something and then masters it. A surplus of crops can lead to specialization because they have leftover crops in which that person trades it over and over and then masters trade. Rivers also have a big influence on trade because they act as a way of transportation. Inhabitants that settled along these rivers grew very rich. This helped a village grow because of its wealth, people could buy tools and other goods that helped them grow.
These iron tools helped us farm faster and more efficient, we can make more crops.
In kingdoms and empires, the king collects taxes. The taxes come from goods that were bought and sold. Those taxes connect to the armies by being able to afford and raise large armies. Then those armies can conquer other trading areas and the king can tax people who come through the conquered area have to pay taxes. Then there is tribute. Tribute is when one king or country pays to another for protection or as a sign of submission.
With the taxes we collected from the goods that were bought and sold, we can pay for an army