56 Congressional delegates, or elected representatives, gathered to sign a document into law, or ratify it, that separated the colonies from England and established natural law.
Articles of Confederation
The Virginia Plan , also known as the Large State Plan, proposed proportional representation for each state. The New Jersey plan, AKA the Small State Plan, supported the opposing side. Virginia supported federalist ideas; they wanted the national and state government sharing power. New Jersey was in favor of Anti-Federalism, which preferred more power to individual states.
The disagreements of Virginia and New Jersey eventually led to the Connecticut Compromise, which helped resolve their conflict. This allowed for the Separation of Powers, which gave equal power to both the state and federal level.
The Bill of Rights
The Articles of Confederation were created to provide structure to the U.S. The branches of government that were established are: Legislative (creates laws), Executive (Approves laws), and Judicial (Enforces laws). Additionally, the 3/5 Compromise was created, which made it that a slave only counted as 3/5 of a person for representation.
The Constitutional Convention met to discuss the problems found in the Articles of Confederation. It established the Constitution, but rejected proposals for the Bill of Rights.
While the Bill of Rights was rejected at first, it was eventually accepted. It created the 10 Amendments: freedom of speech/press/religion, right to bear arms, no quartering of soldiers, no search w/o warrant, right to due process, trial by jury, no cruel punishment, individual rights, and states rights.