Positive reinforcement is the addition of a pleasant stimulus after a desired response to increase the likelihood of the action again. Since Johnny, cleaned his room his mom is rewarding him with a new video game. This causes Tommy to continuously clean his room so he can get rewarded. The behavior is being strengthened, the reward is added, and the reward is favorable.
Until you clean your room you will not get your phone back! Understand!
Negative reinforcement is the removal of something unpleasant o aversive stimulus which increase the likelihood of the action in the future. In this scenario, Bill is taking aspirin to relieve his headache. The behavior changed is Bill's headache, the behavior is strengthened, and the consequence is removed as the consequence is unfavorable.
Positive Punishment is the addition of something unpleasant with the goal of decreasing an undesirable behavior. Such as if one get's detention in school, their parents are also more likely to ground them. Positive punishment changes behavior by decreasing undesirable behavior. The behavior is weakened, the consequence is being added, and the consequence is unfavorable.
Negative Punishment is defined as the removal of something pleasant in order to decrease an unwanted behavior. Such as the removal of technology when a child does not follow directions. The undesirable behavior is changed by weakening it through punishment. The reward is being removed and the reward is favorable.