Observer 1 recording sex, race, location of passengers in the adjacent area, latency of first helper's arrival, and total number of helpers.
Observer 2 recording sex race, location, latency of first helper's arrival and latency after the model presented.
The victims with the canes received more spontaneous help than the drunk victims.
Yes and there was no diffusion of responsibility, possibly because victims and witnesses were face-to-face unlike in previous studies.
People of the same race as the victim appeared to be slightly more likely to help, particularly in the drunk victims.
This may be because people are more likely to help those similar to them, as they may sympathise more with them.
We can conclude from this study that ill victims are more likely to recieve help than drunk ones, and that men tend to be more likely to help. We also learnt that the longer the emergency continues without help offered, the less impact a model has and the more likely it is for individuals to leave the area.