Rome was said to have started with two brothers Romulus and Remus. After being thrown out of Rome by their evil uncle and then being raised by wolves, they then returned and took the throne from their uncle. But after fighting over who would name the city Romulus killed his brother.
Rome was founded as a republic. This form of government had two consuls in charge of a senate. The people in these were all rich patricians. The plebeians were represented by the Assembly.
The Early Roman Empire
Rome soon expanded it's empire and conquered many nations starting with Italy. They also fought and defeated Carthage during the Punic Wars. They also fought against Macedonia which was Alexander the Great's homeland.
Caesar Augustus and the Pax Romana
Julius Caesar was a great emperor known for his many stunning victories over neighboring countries. He was killed by his own senate after calling himself dictator for life.
After the death of Julius Caesar the little that was left of the Roman Republic collapsed. Caesars son Caesar Augustus started the Pax Romana. Also during this time Jesus came to earth.
The Pax Romana was 200 years of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire. During this time Jesus came to earth.