Carried out in a New York subway, almost 4500 male and female passengers became the participants in this covert observation
From student groups, one male acted as the victim pretending to be either sick or drunk to see if people would help while another male was a model (pretend passenger). This is the critical area
Pilavin et al.
Two female observers sat in the adjacent seating area to observe and record how many people were in the areas, their race, sex, who helped and how long it took them
Sometimes, the race of the 'victim' varied to see whether that would affect the amount of help they were getting. Students also predicted that drunk people were less likely to get help than sick people
He could be positioned in the critical area
The model could either help the victim after a period of time or not help at all to see the effect on people