(Taleen Najar) Historical Connection Project

(Taleen Najar) Historical Connection Project
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Sit-ins and The Jim Crow Laws

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  • I'm Not Going To Pay Attention To That Black Woman, I Don't Care What Happens To Her.
  • Sit-Ins
  • Many protesters were not met with calm replies from society. In April, leaders of the numerous sit-in campaigns converged at a gathering. Before the opening of the conference, King emphasized the “need for some type of continuing organization” and revealed his hope that “the youth must take the freedom struggle into every community in the South”. In October 1960, King took part in a sit-in at Rich’s. Because of this, King was condemned to four months of hard labor at 'Georgia State Prison at Reidsville'. By Autumn in 1960, there were indications that the southern civil rights movement had been extremely modified by the strongly self-sufficient student protest movement. The people who had participated in the sit-in campaign were determined to maintain the right action tactics that were taking the initiative from more careful organizations made up of older people.
  • Sit-in campaigns had started in the 1960s. The first sit-in was when four black students from North Carolina A & T College sat down at a Woolworth lunch counter in downtown Greensboro, North Carolina.  They purchased numerous items in the store before sitting at the counter reserved for white customers. When asked to leave, they politely refused. This campaign lasted 3 days. No disputes occurred but the second sit-in attracted the local media. In the end , nobody got arrested.
  • I Refuse To Move!
  • Martin Luther King Jr.
  •     I, MLK Jr., was a social activist and Baptist minister who had played a fundamental role in the American civil rights movement. I wanted equality and human rights for African Americans because they were the economically disadvantaged victims of inequality. I was the leader behind events such as the 'Montgomery Bus Boycott' and the '1963 March on Washington'. The schools I attended were segregated public schools and I was admitted to Morehouse College at the age of 15. While in Boston, I met a young singer from Alabama who was studying at the New England Conservatory of Music, Coretta Scott.      Activists organized a bus boycott that would proceed for 381 days. They chose me as the protest’s head and official spokesman. Because of our protest, the Supreme Court ordered segregated arrangement on public buses illegal in November 1956. By this time, I had joined the national spotlight as an inspirational proponent of organized, peaceful defense.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • Encouraged by the boycott’s success, in 1957 King and other civil rights activists established the 'Southern Christian Leadership Conference'. They were a group determined to achieve complete equality for African Americans through nonviolent protest. As the SCLC president, Martin Luther King Jr. traveled across the country and around the world. He gave talks on peaceful protest and civil rights. 
  • Letter from Birmingham Jail
  • In 1960, King and his family moved to Atlanta. He joined his father as co-pastor of the Ebenezer Baptist Church. This position didn't stop King and his SCLC colleagues from growing to be essential players in many of the most important civil rights conflicts of the 1960s. Their theory of nonviolence was put to an especially rigorous test throughout the Birmingham campaign of 1963. King was arrested for his involvement on April 12. He was written the civil rights manifesto known as the “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” an articulate defense of civil disobedience directed to a group of white religious leaders who had criticized his tactics.
  • The March on Washington and "I Have a Dream"
  • Martin Luther King Jr. worked with civil rights and religious organizations to plan the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. It was a nonviolent political gathering intended to cast a light on the inequalities African Americans proceeded to face across the country. This event was held on August 28 and attended by about 200,000 to 300,000 people. It was considered as a turning point in the history of the American civil rights movement.
  • King's Assassination and MLK Day
  • The events that had occurred in Selma increased a growing rift between Martin Luther King Jr. and young people who refused to be associated with his nonviolent practices and devotion to working within the instituted political structure. At dusk on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King was assassinated. He was shot while standing on the balcony of a motel in Memphis. He had traveled there to support a sanitation workers’ strike. In the wake of his death, tons of riots cleared major cities beyond the country, while President Johnson proclaimed a national day of mourning.
  • In 1983, after years of campaigning by activists, members of Congress and Coretta Scott King convinced President Ronald Reagan to sign a bill creating a U.S. federal holiday in honor of King. Celebrated on the third Monday of January, Martin Luther King Day was first commemorated in 1986.
  • The March on Washington climaxed in my most popular speech, known as the “I Have a Dream” speech, an active call for peace and equality that many think is a masterpiece of speech. I shared my thought of a future in which “this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.'” Later that year, I was labeled “Man of the Year” by TIME magazine and in 1964 became the youngest person ever granted the Nobel Peace Prize.  That August, Congress legislated the Voting Rights Act, which ensured the right to vote, first granted by the 15th Amendment, to all African Americans.
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