In Egypt they where ruled by the pharoah. The pharoah had control over many aspects of life like water soures, law enforcement, and construction of irrigation. Then there are Artisans which are skilled people like preasts and scribes. At the bottom of the list are slaves and farm workers which were considered talentless.
In Egypt they built big statues and temples and sent out slaves and volunteers on hot sunny days in the dry sahharauh desert.
Many cities in egypt like Giza, Memphis, Karnak, Abydos, and etc worshiped a cat goddess. So cats were held in high esteem. Also the penalties for killing a cat were harsh.
In Egypt merchants traded raw materials like fruit, ores, and much more. The nile river helped alot with trade because they traveled up and down the Nile River to trade with lower and upper egypt.
Egyptians wrote information down on papyrus ,which is paper, they wrote this information in a writing called hieroglyphics. The scribes were in charge of making these hieroglyphics.
In Ancient Egypt they invented something called mummifaction. Mummification is a process of taking organs out of a body and when this is done they wrap the mummy in bandages. Mummification was a religious thing that only egyptians did.