Observers recorded the number and race of observers and helpers, latency of helping response, movement out of the critical area and spontaneous comments
Field experiment to investigate the effect of several variables on helping behaviour using trains in New York. 4 teams of 4 students.
I wish I could help him - I'm not strong enough
4 model conditions - Critical area (early): model helped after 70 seconds Critical area (late): model helped after 150 seconds Adjacent area (early): model helped after 70 seconds Adjacent area (late): model helped after 150 seconds
It's for men to help him.
Approximately 4450 passengers on New York subway between 11am-3pm during 15/04/68 and 26/06/68 on a 7.5 minute non stop journey. Racial composition of typical carriage 45% black and 55% white.
Diffusion of responsibility was not evident in this study as initially thought. In fact, the quickest help came from the largest groups.
Cane victims received spontaneous help on 62 out of 65 trials regardless of his race.
Drunk victims (smelling of alcohol with a bottle of alcohol in a brown bag) received spontaneous help on 19 out of 38 trials with mainly members of his own race helping.
On 21 of the 103 trials, 34 people left the critical area - mostly when victim appeared drunk.
Pros of study: had ecological validity and a large sample size Cons of study: ethical issues and lack of control.