An acid is a proton donor, this means it gives out proton and hydrogen (H+) ions. In an acid the more H+ ions it has, the more acidic it is! Acidity and alkalinity relate to pH, they may also be known as pH indicators.
A base is a proton or H+ receiver, it takes in the Hydrogen ions it was given. A base can neutralize the acid by reacting with H+ ions! Alkali is an example of a base and alkaline is an acid-base, acid base indicators can be used to determine if a solution is one of these things!
Salt reacts to water by dissolving, when dissolving, they yield a pH that it greater than 7.0. Salts are ionic compounds that result from a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base.
Something that is corrosive causing corrosion; damage /erosion. When used with the context of acids and bases, an acid and base can be corrosive. Salt and water reacting on skin can be very corrosive for example!
Bog bodies are basically mummified human cadavers. The bodies' skin, hair, clothes, and the stomach contents are amazingly well preserved due to the acidity of the peat bogs used the store the bodies. These peat bogs lack of oxygen conditions are also to thank for the well-kept presentations.