Soooooo you want to know about Capitalism huh? Well before we get into anything advanced about this practice, lets cover the basics first.
Capitalism is a economic system that focuses on individuals having private ownership of production and a market that determines what goods are produced.
The origin of Capitalism has been thought to be from Medieval traders that rid themselves of feudalism. This is especially seen when the first chartered joint-stock companies were established, that drove up commerce and trade during the Early Modern period.
Now what you may be asking yourself is what about other popular economic systems? Well one that is seen as the opposite of Capitalism is Communism, which is the idea that everyone should get paid the same no matter how much work they do and all property is controlled and distributed by the government.
The country you live in however, the US, does practice Capitalism while it is considered by some as a mixed economy. Which is an economy that has both private AND public enterprise.
I hope you learned something today and realized the true beauty of capitalism. God bless America!