The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution

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  • In the Industrial Revolution, cities began to change. Growing wealth and industrialization altered the basic layout of European cities. They were more spacious with new squares and boulevards. Many poor regions were rebuilt. Cities improved in safety and sanitation making them better places to live. 
  • Buildings were built with steel which was stronger and more efficient. Steel was lighter, harder, and more durable than iron.  
  • look at all these steel buildings
  • Middle Class
  • Working Middle Class
  • Eventually, working class men were given the right to vote. 
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  • One of founders of bacteriology. He discovered the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis and cholera. 
  • Developed the germ theory of disease and identified the causes of many diseases like rabies, anthrax, smallpox, and chicken cholera. He determined they could be prevented by vaccines. 
  • A New Middle Class was created by the Industrial Revolutions. Some were merchants who invested in factories, some were inventors and skilled artisans. This class benefited the most and went from "rags to riches".  The working Middle Class wasn't as well off as the New Middle Class. The working middle class was very poor and were forced to work long, hard hours with little pay. They lived in foul, overcrowded buildings and even children were forced to work. 
  • New improvements in health, medicine, and nutrition increased population. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch contributed to these improvements. Hospital care also improved with anesthesia. Joseph Lister discovered how antiseptics prevent infection and encouraged sterilization and washing hands before operation.  
  • Robert Koch
  • Louis Pasteur
  • Chemists created hundreds of new products like aspirin, perfumes, and soap. Electricity replaced steam as a dominant source of industrial power. Thomas Edison made the first electric light bulb.  
  • Alfred Noble: invented dynamite
  • Nikolaus Otto invented a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and Karl Benz received a patent for the first automobile. The first airplanes boosted farm production. Samuel F.B. Morse developed the telegraph which could send coded messages over wires by electricity.
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