Ionic bonds consist of the bonding between a metal and a nonmetal. The metal loses electrons to become a positively charged ion and the nonmetal gains these electrons to become a negatively charged ion.
What is Ionic Bonding?
Here, we can see Calcium, who is a metal and Oxygen, who is a nonmetal, meeting at the mall for some friendly bonding.
Hey Calcium! You ready for some fun?
Hi Oxygen! I definitely am!
To show their bond, Calcium gives up 2 electrons to Oxygen. This completes the octet of 8 electrons in the valence electron shell.
A Covalent bond involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. Covalent bonds are formed between 2 nonmetals. Covalent bonds can also be either polar or nonpolar.
What is Covalent Bonding?
Hydrogen, I can't feel stable without you, can I please share your one electron with you?
Here, we can see that Chlorine isn't stable because she only has 7 valence electrons. As we know, an octet has 8 electrons. With the help of Hydrogen, Chlorine will become stable since Hydrogen has the 1 valence electron that Chlorine needs to form the octet. Together, they become the polar covalent bond Hydrogen Chloride.
Of course Chlorine. If you'll become stable, I'm happy to bond with you.
Valence electrons are the electrons located in the outermost shell of an atom. As we've seen, they can be transferred or shared with other atoms.
What are Valence electrons?
In Ionic bonds, the valence electrons are given or taken. On the contrary, Valence electrons are shared in Covalent bonds.
Periodic Trends affect bonding due to the way the elements are arranged on the Periodic Table.
How do Periodic Trends affect bonding?
In Ionic bonds, the atoms that are involved are those that have a difference in electronegativity. In Covalent bonds, the atoms involved are those that have similar electronegativities.