Ralph and Piggy find the conch and that grants Ralph authority and leadership
Simon is one of the most moral and civilized characters in LOTF. However, he has a growing darkness inside of him known as choas and savagery
Piggy's broken Glasses are a symbol for civilization, technology, innovation, and knowledge. When Jack breaks them it represents savagery taking over
"But there was a stillness about Ralph as he sat that marked him out: there was his size, and attractive appearance; and most obviously, most powerfully, there was the conch" (22). Here, Ralph and piggy had found the conch. Ralph blew it to gather the boys in one place from around the island. The conch reminds the boys of 'the man with the megaphone', or an authority figure which leads them to elect Ralph as chief. The children here are a perfect example of civilization, with democracy and voting.
The Beastie represents fear and the growing savagery in the children. This is is also a common myth that brings the boys together to kill it
"'There isn't anyone to help you. Only me. And I'm the beast'... 'Pigs head on a stick.' 'Fancy thinking the beast was something you could hunt and kill!... I'm part of you?'" (143). The pig's head symbolizes savagery and the dark side of human nature. Even though Simon is one of the most civilized and morally aware characters, even he is being consumed by this darkness.
The Fire is hope for the boys to return home. But as their savagery increases, the fire diminishes as does their longing to return home
"When they had dealt with the fire another crisis arose. Jack had no means of lighting it. Then, to his surprise, Ralph went to Piggy and and took the glasses from him.... Instantly the fire was alight, Piggy held out his hands and grabbed the glasses back" (73). Even though Jack (savagery) doesn't want to admit it, he needs Piggy's glasses (civilization). As Jack's savagery takes over, he no longer cares about the fire and being rescued, all he cares about is killing the beast.
Painted Faces are masks that the boys use to cover their insecurities, become someone else, embarrassment, and hide from people's judgement or expectations.
"At once the crowd surged after it, poured down the rock, leapt onto the beast, screamed, struck, bit, tore....Softly, surrounded by a fringe of inquisitive bright creatures, it's self a silver shape beneath the stead fast constellations, Simon's dead body, moved out toward the open sea" (152-153). The boy's savagery has grown so intense that they even mistake a human being as the beast and kill him.
"'There was a ship. Out there. You said you'd keep the fire going and you let it it out!" (70). The boys one hope for rescue, having a boat see their smoke, was crushed when a ship passed and couldn't see their smoke. Ralph was furious since Jack and his hunters were too busy hunting to tend the fire. Savagery has increased too much and civilization is being weeded out.
"He capered toward Bill, and the mask was a thing on it's own, behind which Jack hid, liberated from shame and self consciousness" (64). The mask allows Jack to become savage like he desired before, he can hide from others judgement and criticisms.