Also proposed at the constitutional convention the three fifths clause was made to prevent slave states from having to much weight. African Americans from then on were counted as 3/5's of a vote
Three separate branches of government were created to make sure no branch was more powerful than the others.
The executive branch was to make sure laws were enforced, a major flaw under the old constitution.
Then judicial branch was created to make sure that no branch was abusing their powers, It was also created to have a supreme court who judged if certain laws are constitutional. This branch separates the right from the wrong.
And finally the legislative branch was created after the Connecticut compromise. It holds the house of representatives from the new jersey plan, and the senate. Their job is to create laws, pass laws, and impeach officials. The president has the power to veto a law, and has to ask for permission to enact wars and other big decisions. This is how they all stay on the same level.
In the end, the people decided to ratify but not without the bill of rights. The bill of rights includes: Personal freedoms such as speech and religion, the right to bear arms, the quartering of soldiers, search and arrest rights, rights to criminal cases and fair trials, rights in civil cases, no unfair punishment or bail, rights that are retained by the people, and states rights.