God spoke to Abraham and made a covenant with him. Sarah and Abraham had a son Isaac even though Sarah was old, Isaac then had a child named Jacob. God appeared in Jacob's dream and made a promise to him, God gave Jacob a new name; Israel
It took the Israelites about 40 years of wandering in the desert before reaching the region of Canaan. However, when the israelites got to the promise land other people are already living there do they had to gain control.
Israelites wanted their own king. The Hebrew tribes were united under the kingdom of Isreal for about 80 years; 40 years under their first king, Saul, and 40 years under David's son, king Solomon. The tribes were divided and became the kingdom of Israel and kingdom of Judah.
After Alexander's death his empire was then divided. One of the generals was based in Syria and the other general was based in Egypt. Most ancient Palestine was ruled by the general located in Egypt, most Palestine embraced Jewish faith although there was some Greek influence on the people.
Jewish people din't like how the Greeks ruled over them. Jewish people had to fight to gain independence. A group of rebel Jews formed and they were known as the zealots. The zealots helped the Jews become independent and break away from Greek leadership.
Jewish Independence lasted for about 100 years before the Romans took control of the land. Once the Romans conquered a piece of land, they would carefully select leaders from the conquered people themselves to rule on behalf of the Romans.