Longhorns were well suited for life in Texas because they were able to endure hot and cold weather, eat prickly pear cacti, and were resistant to the cattle disease Texas fever.
In 1901, Pattillo Higgins believed that oil could be found under Spindletop hill, Beaumont so he started drilling there. He started a business and started the drilling but came up short for 3 wells, then he put up an add asking for a drilling engineer. he got a call from Anthony F. Lucas, a salt dome expert, agreed to help him drill at Spindletop. He found traces of oil there but he needed better equipment. after getting the better equipment he started to drill again. Then on January 10, 1901 he struck oil, it shot through the top of the derrick.
The 1st national labor union arrived in Texas in 1886. The Knights of Labor organized to support skilled and unskilled workers of almost every trade, including large numbers of farmers. Unlike most national unions, membership into the Knights was open to woman and African Americans. Local chapters of the group were established in cities, including Huston, Galveston, Waco, Fort Worth, and Austin. There were more than 300 local Knights groups in Texas by the mid-1880s.