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A dead/ weakened version of a pathogen is injected into the body and triggers the immune system to respond
White blood cells called lymphocytes (b-cells and t-cells) detect the virus and gather around the site of the infection
These lymphocytes produce specific antibodies that immobilise and clump the antigens (weakened pathogens) so that macrophages (white blood cells) can find and engulf them
The pathogen has been made harmless (it cannot reproduce) so it is destroyed quickly using the process of phagocytosis
Memory cells will remember which antibodies work against the specific pathogen so that they will be ready to respond to further challenges by the same virus at full-strength very quickly
Overall, vaccines act as a 'training course' or 'preparation' for when the actual full-strength virus enters the body
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