Despite liberal and nationalistic attempts in the 1830s, revolutions broke out all over Europe in 1848
WE WANT RIGHTS! FRANCE HAS BEEN TAKEN OVER AND WE WANT THE OLD ORDER GONE!
WE have to shut down the workshops! It's draining our funds!
We have already given the people a constitution,and a republic with universal male suffrage!
The Constitution has been ratified! WE have a single legilative, a president, and voting!
In France, King Charles X took away voting rights from the middle class and censored the press. This made the middle class angry, and the rebelled and took control of France. They made France a constitutinal monarchy
In 1848, a provisional government was set up. This government wrote a new constitution, had universal male suffrage, and made workshops for the work-less to work in. Soon, the workshops started draining the vaults, and the government had to shut them down. This caused the people to be mad and they rebelled. Thousands died and thousands more went to prison.
On November 4, 1848, a new constitution was ratified. The government the constitution was called the Second Republic. The Second Republic had a single legilative, with members elected y universal male suffrage. There was a president who served for 4 years. The first president was Louis-Napoleon, nephew of the famous leader.
In Austria, revolutions broke out all over the place. Austria was a multi-national country, which means they had people from many different cultures, including, Germans, Czechs, Magyars, Romanians, and Italians. Vienna was taken over, and in an attempt to please the protesters, the government gave Hungary its own legislative.But, by 1849 , the government had crushed the rebels and taken Vienna back.
All of the revolutions to try and get rid of the old order failed. The main reason was because the radicals and liberals could not agree on the goals of the revolution, and therefore they were easily defeated. They could not see past the differences with each other.