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Solar System

Teacher Guide by Oliver Smith

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Student Activities for Solar System Include:

The solar system is a grouping of eight planets and lots of other objects that are bound together by gravity. At the center of our solar system is a star, the Sun. Our solar system is one of billions in the universe. It is unique in the fact it is the only one we know of that contains life.

By the end of this lesson your students will create amazing storyboards like the ones below!




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Solar System Information

Our solar system formed 4.6 billion years ago. The Sun is an average-sized star about halfway through its life cycle. It is a near-perfect sphere of plasma that emits radiation due to nuclear fusion reactions taking place. Nearly three-quarters of the Sun’s mass is its main nuclear fuel, hydrogen.The Sun is essential for life on Earth as it provides heat and light energy for green plants to photosynthesize. The Sun accounts for over 99% of the mass in the solar system. Our Sun is a main sequence star that has remained stable for roughly four billion years and will remain stable for about another five billion years. Our solar system sits of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy about 26,000 light years from the center.

Humans haven’t always been sure about the structure of our universe. Until Galileo Galilei, people thought the structure of our universe was different. Aristotle put forward the idea that the Earth was at the center of our Universe, this is known as the geocentric model. People believed this because the apparent motion of the Moon, the Sun and other celestial bodies seemed to be going around the Earth. Using the newly invented telescope, Galileo observed four objects orbiting around the planet Jupiter and came to the conclusion that the Earth was not at the center of the solar system. This changed the way we would view our planet’s importance. For millennia, we assumed our planet was at the center of everything, giving it a huge amount of importance. It turns out our planet is very small and insignificant; one of many, many trillions in the universe.

Scientists have spent a lot of time and resources finding out more about the different planets that make up our solar system. Early exploration was done using telescopes, like William Herschel discovering the planet Uranus in 1781. Telescopes only allows us to understand the other planets with limited detail. It wasn’t until space flight had been refined that scientists could start to send man-made spacecraft to orbit and even land on other planets that we were able to find out detailed information about the other planets of our solar system.

There are eight planets in our solar system. In order from closest to the Sun to furthest away they are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. An easy way to remember the order of the planets is using the mnemonic: My very easy method just speeds up naming.


Note: Pluto was downgraded from a planet to a dwarf planet in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union.

My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming

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Planets in Order

Mercury

Orbital Period: 88 Earth Days

Length of a Day: 4,222 hours

Diameter: 4,879 km

Distance from the Sun: 57,900,000 km

Strength of Gravity: 3.7 N/kg

Number of Moons: 0


Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. The planet is named after the Roman god of commerce, who was known for being very swift. Mercury does not have an atmosphere so it doesn’t retain the heat from the Sun. Temperatures can range from 430 °C (800 °F) during the day and -180 °C (-290 °F) during the night. The first spacecraft to visit mercury was mariner 10. When it visited it managed to take pictures of about 45% of Mercury’s surface. The surface of Mercury looks similar to our moon, with lots of large craters from impacts on the planet.


Venus

Orbital Period: 225 Earth Days

Length of a Day: 2,802 hours

Diameter: 12,104 km

Distance from the Sun: 108,000,000 km

Strength of Gravity: 8.9 N/kg

Number of Moons: 0


Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is similar in size to the Earth and it also has a similar composition. Like our planet, Venus has a hot iron core surrounded by a mantle. The planet also has a dense atmosphere of gases composed mainly carbon dioxide; these gases can retain a lot of the Sun’s heat, making it the hottest planet in our solar system with an average temperature of 464 °C (867 °F). Venus, named after the Roman goddess of love, has the least elliptical orbit out of all the planets. After our own moon, it is the brightest object in the night sky. Missions to Venus can be difficult due to the extreme temperatures found on the planet’s surface. There have been several unmanned missions to Venus, in 1970 the Soviet Union landed Venera 7 making it the first spacecraft to land on another planet. Between 1990-1994, the Magellan mission orbited the planet and managed to image 98% of the planet's surface.


Earth

Orbital Period: 365.25 Earth Days (24 Hours)

Length of a Day: 24 Hours

Diameter: 12,756 km

Distance from the Sun: 149,600,000 km

Strength of Gravity: 9.8 N/kg

Number of Moons: 1


Our home! It is the only planet in the universe we know has life (other planets may have life, but we haven’t found any yet)! Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest planet. To find out more about Earth, check out the Structure of the Earth and other related teacher guides.


Mars

Orbital Period: 687 Earth Days

Length of a Day: 24.7 Hours

Diameter: 6,792 km

Distance from the Sun: 227,900,000 km

Strength of Gravity: 3.7 N/kg

Number of Moons: 2


Mars is also known as the Red Planet due to the color of its surface. Mars was named after the Roman god of war because people thought the planet was the color of blood. After six US and Soviet attempts, the first successful flyby of Mars was in 1961, when the Mariner 4 spacecraft managed to send back some black and white images to Earth. These images were the first images of a another planet taken from space. More recently, NASA managed to successful land the Curiosity rover to look at the composition of its rocks and atmosphere. Scientists are interested about the possibility of liquid water on Mars and the implications this could have for Martian life. Mars is about half the size of Earth and like our planet, it experiences seasons due to a tilt in its axis. The Martian atmosphere is mainly carbon dioxide (96%) with some argon and nitrogen. Temperatures on the Martian surface vary from lows of -143 °C (-225 °F) at the polar caps and 35 °C (95 °F) on the equator during the summer.


Asteroid Belt

The asteroid belt sits between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. It is made up of fragments of rock and dust. The largest object in the asteroid belt is Ceres, a dwarf planet, which makes up roughly one third of the total mass of the asteroid belt. The belt is not very densely populated, so spacecraft can easily pass through.


Jupiter

Orbital Period: 4,331 Earth Days

Length of a Day: 9.9 hours

Diameter: 142,984 km

Distance from the Sun: 778,600,000 km

Strength of Gravity: 23.1 N/kg

Number of Moons: 67


Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system and also has the largest number of moons. It is the fifth planet from the Sun and the first gas giant. It is known for its stripes and swirls on the surface which are caused by the movement of gases in the Jovian atmosphere. Jupiter only has a small 3° tilt, so it doesn’t really experience seasons, like Earth and Mars do. The composition of Jupiter is similar to that of the Sun, made up of mainly hydrogen and helium. In 1610 Galileo made observations of four of Jupiter’s moons which led to disproving the heliocentric model of the solar system. One of the moons that Galileo observed was Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system.


Saturn

Orbital Period: 10,747 Earth Days

Length of a Day: 10.7 Hours

Diameter: 120,536 km

Distance from the Sun: 1,443,500,000 km

Strength of Gravity: 9 N/kg

Number of Moons: 62


Saturn is most famous for its rings that are made of ice and rocks. Other planets, like Jupiter, also have rings, but none are as impressive as Saturn's. Saturn is another planet which is known as a gas giant due to its size and composition. It is made up of mostly hydrogen and helium. Saturn is the only planet in our solar system that is less dense than water. This means it would float on an ocean (if we could find one big enough)! It is named after the Roman god of agriculture and wealth. Saturn has the solar system’s second largest moon, Titan. Titan is slightly larger than the planet Mercury.


Uranus

Orbital Period: 30,589 Earth Days

Length of a Day: 17.2 Hours

Diameter: 49,528 km

Distance from the Sun: 2,872,500,000 km

Strength of Gravity: 8.7 N/kg

Number of Moons: 27


Uranus is not only composed of hydrogen and helium, but also ammonia, water, and methane. Its blue color comes from methane in the upper atmosphere that absorbs red light from the sun, but reflects the blue light. Uranus has been observed and incorrectly recorded many times as a star or comet. It was first correctly identified as a planet by William Herschel in 1781. Herschel originally wanted to call the planet Georgium Sidus, after the British Monarch King George III, but he wasn’t successful. The planet is named after the Roman god of the sky. It wasn’t until the planet was observed in 1977 that scientists found that Uranus, like Saturn, is surrounded by rings. Uranus is unique in the solar system as its axis is 97° off the vertical, meaning Uranus spins on its side. The first flyby of Uranus was in 1986 when Voyager 2 flew 81,500 km away from the planet.


Neptune

Orbital Period: 59,800 Earth Days

Length of a Day: 16.1 Hours

Diameter: 49,528 km

Distance from the Sun: 4,495,100,000 km

Strength of Gravity: 11.0 N/kg

Number of Moons: 14


Neptune is invisible to the naked eye; it can only be viewed using a telescope. It was first discovered at the Berlin Observatory in 1846 after mathematical prediction making Neptune the only planet not discovered empirically. It has a composition similar to that of Uranus. The planet is named after the Roman god of the sea. The outer parts of Neptune’s atmosphere are extremely cold, -235 °C (-391°F), due to its distance from the Sun. After the Voyager 2 spacecraft visited Uranus, it then flew past Neptune, passing the poles 4,800 km away. Its images confirmed the existence of the rings of Neptune.



Essential Questions for the Solar System

  1. What is the structure of our solar system?
  2. How are the planets in our solar system different?
  3. How have our ideas of the solar system changed?

Solar System Lesson Plans, Student Activities and Graphic Organizers

Planets in the Solar System


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In this activity, students will produce a labeled model of the solar system. They will put the planets in the correct order from closest to furthest away from the Sun.

A great way of remembering the names of the planets in the correct order is using the mnemonic ‘my very easy method just speeds up naming ’. Another great activity is to ask your students to come up with their own mnemonic storyboard.

As an extension, have students order the planets in order of mass, orbital period, year, discovery date, or average temperature. Alternatively, add a description box underneath each planet and have your students research more facts about each planet.

To make this activity simpler for students who are struggling, cut up the example storyboard with just planets at the top of the teacher guide and have students put the planets in the correct order.

Planets of the Solar System

Example

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking "Copy Assignment", change the description of the assignment in your Dashboard.)


Student Instructions

Demonstrate your understanding of the positions of the different planets by recreating the solar system using Storyboard That.

  1. Click "Use this Template" from the assignment.
  2. Search "space" or "planet".
  3. Drag down the solar system diagram.
  4. Insert images of the planets
  5. Put the planets in the correct order of distance from the Sun.
  6. Save and submit your storyboard. Make sure to use the drop-down menu to save it under the assignment title.


Large Single Cell Diagram

Example

(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)





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Vocabulary for the Solar System


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Have your students put key vocabulary into practice. One of the things students can find really difficult is using scientific vocabulary correctly and in the appropriate context. Using a visual representation or visual examples as well as a written one can really help students understand abstract concepts.


Example Solar System Vocabulary


Star

A ball of dust and gas held together by gravity which emits radiation due to nuclear reactions.


Geocentric Model

A model of the solar system where the Earth is at the center.


Heliocentric Model

A model of the solar system where the Sun is at the center.


Orbit

The curved path of an object in space around another object due to gravity.


Galaxy

A collection of many stars held together by gravity. Our galaxy is the Milky Way.


Additional solar system vocabulary includes:

  • Asteroid
  • Asteroid Belt
  • Atmosphere
  • Chromosphere
  • Comet
  • Convection Zone
  • Core
  • Corona
  • Crater
  • Earth
  • Ellipse
  • Extraterrestrial Life
  • Gas Giant
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Jupiter
  • Kuiper Belt
  • Mars
  • Mercury
  • Meteor
  • Meteorite
  • Neptune
  • Nuclear Fusion
  • Nucleus
  • Oort Cloud
  • Photosphere
  • Pluto
  • Prominence
  • Radiation Zone
  • Ring
  • Saturn
  • Solar Flare
  • Solar Wind
  • Sunspot
  • Terrestrial Planets
  • Uranus
  • Venus
Solar System Vocabulary

Example

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking "Copy Assignment", change the description of the assignment in your Dashboard.)


Student Instructions

Demonstrate your understanding of key scientific vocabulary by creating visualizations.

  1. Click "Use this Template" from the assignment.
  2. Choose five vocabulary words and type them in the title boxes.
  3. Find the definition in a print or online dictionary and write it under the cell.
  4. Illustrate the meaning of the word in the cell using a combination of scenes, characters, and items.
    • Alternatively, use Photos for Class to give examples of the words.
  5. Save and submit your storyboard. Make sure to use the drop-down menu to save it under the assignment title.


(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)






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The Solar System Discussion Storyboard


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Discussion storyboards are a great way to get your students talking about their ideas in Science. They allow students to critique and evaluate different viewpoints without upsetting other students. This activity can be used at the start of the topic to elicit any misconceptions students may have.

At first, show students a discussion storyboard like the one below. Ask them to look at the problem on the discussion storyboard. It shows four students who all have an idea about the problem in front of them. Students should think about who they think is the most correct and be prepared to explain why that person is correct.

Here are some other ideas to use these discussion storyboards in your lessons.

  1. Students add another cell on the end of the example you’ve given them to explain who they think is correct and why.
  2. Students create their own discussion storyboards to share with peers on the current topic.

Note that the template in this assignment is blank. After clicking "Copy Assignment", add your desired problem and solutions to match the needs of your students.
Discussion Storyboard - MS - The Sun

Example

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking "Copy Assignment", change the description of the assignment in your Dashboard.)


Student Instructions

Read the discussion storyboard that shows four students who all have an idea about the problem in front of them. You are going to give your opinion on who you think is correct and explain why.


  1. Click "Use this Template" from the assignment.
  2. Add another cell at the end of the row.
  3. Use text and images to explain who you think is correct and why.
  4. Save and submit the assignment. Make sure to use the drop-down menu to save it under the assignment title.


Discussion Storyboard - Blank

Example

(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)





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Galileo and Theories About Our Solar System


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Have your students tell the story of how Galileo Galilei discovered the moons of Jupiter and provided evidence to disprove the Geocentric Model of the solar system. Other options include creating a narrative about other important discoveries of the solar system.

Galileo

Example

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking "Copy Assignment", change the description of the assignment in your Dashboard.)


Student Instructions

You are going to create a narrative storyboard explaining how Galileo’s observations of the moons of Jupiter changed the way we think about the solar system.


  1. Click "Use this Template" from the assignment.
  2. Add as many cells and rows are you need.
  3. Use a series of characters, scenes and props to tell the story of how Galileo changed the way we think about the universe.
  4. Save and submit the assignment. Make sure to use the drop-down menu to save it under the assignment title.


Blank Cell with Description

Example

(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)





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Other Solar System Project and Lesson Plan Ideas

  1. Create a narrative storyboard of how the planet Neptune was discovered.
  2. Make a spider map listing all the different objects that can be found in our solar system.
  3. Create a timeline storyboard showing how scientists have observed and explored our solar system.

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