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# Introduction to Energy

### Teacher Guide by Oliver Smith

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## Student Activities for Introduction to Energy Include:

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. This is known as the conservation of energy. The universe has a finite amount of energy which is transferred from one form to another. Einstein in the early 20th century put forward the idea that energy and mass were interchangeable, leading to the most famous equation in Science: E=mc2. In modern times, we need to look for new energy resources as old methods of burning fossil fuels increases the greenhouse effect and has led to global warming. In this teacher guide, we will explore the different forms of energy that can be found and look at the transfers that take place between these energy forms.

# Introduction to Energy Lesson Plans, Student Activities and Graphic Organizers

## Vocabulary for Energy

Have your students put key vocabulary into practice. One of the things students can find really difficult is using scientific vocabulary correctly and in the appropriate context. Using a visual representation or visual examples as well as a written one can really help students understand abstract concepts.

### Example Introduction to Energy Vocabulary

#### Energy

The ability to do work (motion or change), measured in Joules (J).

#### Speed

How fast something is travelling. Measure in meters per second (ms-1 or m/s).

#### Gravity

An attractive force between objects that have a mass. It increases as the distance gets smaller and the mass increases.

#### Efficiency

The proportion of the total input energy that is transferred to useful forms. Efficiency = useful energy(J) ÷ total energy(J)

#### Conservation of Energy

The idea that energy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred from one form to another.

Other terms include:

• Ammeter
• Battery
• Cells
• Consumption
• Current
• Dissipate
• Dynamo
• Electrical
• Flectrons
• Food
• Fuels
• Generator
• Inefficient
• Insulation
• Joulemeter
• Light
• Output
• Sound
• Transform
• Voltage
• Weight

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking "Copy Assignment", change the description of the assignment in your Dashboard.)

#### Student Instructions

Demonstrate your understanding of key scientific vocabulary by creating visualizations.

1. Choose five vocabulary words and type them in the title boxes.
2. Find the definition in a print or online dictionary and write it under the cell.
3. Illustrate the meaning of the word in the cell using a combination of scenes, characters, and items.
• Alternatively, use Photos for Class to give examples of the words.
4. Save and submit your storyboard. Make sure to use the drop-down menu to save it under the assignment title.

(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)

## Forms of Energy

In this activity, your students will demonstrate their knowledge of the different forms of energy.

### Forms of Energy

Kinetic Energy Anything that moves has kinetic energy, such as cars, runners, bullets. The faster something moves or the more mass it has, the more kinetic energy it has.﻿ Energy that is released by vibrating objects is sound energy. The larger the vibrations, the more sound energy is released. Thermal energy is also known as heat energy. It is caused by the vibration of the particles in a substance. The hotter something is, the more thermal energy it has. Chemical energy is the energy stored in the bonds between atoms and molecules. This energy can be released by chemical reactions, such as combustion. This is energy found in moving charges or static electrical charges. Examples can be found in lightning or any electrical circuit. Any object that is raised up has gravitational energy. It depends on the strength of gravity, the mass, and the height of the object. Light energy is also known as radiant energy. This can be found in all forms of electromagnetic radiation. The energy found in objects that are squashed or stretched. Examples are compressed springs and stretched elastic bands. Energy found in the nucleus of an atom released by nuclear reactions. Examples can be found in nuclear power stations or atomic bombs. Magnetic energy is energy related to magnets or electromagnets.

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking "Copy Assignment", change the description of the assignment in your Dashboard.)

#### Student Instructions

Demonstrate your understanding of energy by giving examples of where these different forms of energy can be found.

1. Click "Use this Template" from the assignment.
2. Replace "Term" with a form of energy. Add more cells as needed.
3. Use images and photos to show examples of where the forms of energy can be found.
4. Add a short description underneath.
5. Save and submit your storyboard. Make sure to use the drop-down menu to save it under the assignment title.

(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)

## Introduction to Energy Discussion Storyboard

Discussion storyboards are a great way to get your students talking about their ideas in Science. They allow students to critique and evaluate different viewpoints without upsetting other students. This activity can be used at the start of the topic to elicit any misconceptions students may have.

At first, show students a discussion storyboard like the one below. Ask them to look at the problem on the discussion storyboard. It shows four students who all have an idea about the problem in front of them. Students should think about whom they think is the most correct and be prepared to explain why that person is correct. Students might support their position by creating visuals, including text and images, on Storyboard That. These visuals can easily be exported as PowerPoint slides. After students have prepared their argument, have your students discuss their ideas. This discussion can be carried out in a range of different formats. Students could discuss in pairs, small groups or even in a teacher-led, whole class setting. It is important to agree on a list of discussion rules with students before they start so that everybody gets a chance to participate. Students will also be able to practice adapting their speech to a formal debating context and can demonstrate their grasp of formal English.

Here are some other ideas to use these discussion storyboards in your lessons.

1. Students add another cell on the end of the example you’ve given them to explain whom they think is correct and why.
2. Students create a storyboard to describe why a student is incorrect, and then "teach" the concept.
3. Students create their own discussion storyboards to share with peers on the current topic.

Note that the template in this assignment is blank. After clicking "Copy Assignment", add your desired problem and solutions to match the needs of your students.

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking "Copy Assignment", change the description of the assignment in your Dashboard.)

#### Student Instructions

Read the discussion storyboard that shows four students who all have an idea about the problem in front of them. You are going to give your opinion on whom you think is correct and explain why. You will use your created storyboard to engage in discussion with your peers.

1. Click "Use this Template" from the assignment.
2. Add another cell at the end of the row.
3. Use text and images to explain whom you think is correct and why.
4. Save and submit the assignment. Make sure to use the drop-down menu to save it under the assignment title.

(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)

## Energy Transfers

Energy is conserved, meaning that energy cannot be created or destroyed. This means that one form of energy is transferred to another. We can represent this transference using energy transfer diagrams.

The energy transfers used in this example show both useful and wasted energies.

For students that need some more support with energy transfers, get them to just identify the input energy and the useful output energy. Or, use the example storyboard by cutting it up and getting students to organize it as a card sort.

As an extension, stretch your more able students by getting them to research values for input and output energies and create Sankey diagram in another column.

(These instructions are completely customizable. After clicking "Copy Assignment", change the description of the assignment in your Dashboard.)

#### Student Instructions

You are going to use Storyboard That as a graphic organizer to show energy transfers for a range of real world situations. Remember energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred from one type to another.

1. Click "Use this Template" from the assignment.
2. Choose three examples of energy input.
3. Write what form of energy the energy input is in the left column.
4. Use an image or photo to represent the example processes.
5. Write what form the useful and wasted energy forms are in the right column.
6. Save and submit the assignment. Make sure to use the drop-down menu to save it under the assignment title.

(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)

## Teacher Background on Energy

The English physicist, James Prescott Joule, carried out many experiments looking at the equivalence of heat and mechanical energy (sum of potential and kinetic energy). He found that the temperature of water could be increased using mechanical energy. This led to the law of conservation of energy which states that the total energy in a closed system is constant, meaning energy can’t be created or destroyed.

There is a finite amount of energy in the universe as energy can only be transferred from one form to another, not created or destroyed. For example, a light bulb transfers electrical energy to light energy. Light bulbs also get very warm, so not all the electrical energy is converted to light energy, some of it is transferred into heat energy. We call this heat energy wasted energy and the light energy useful energy. Modern day light bulbs are more efficient than light bulbs were 50 years ago. This means that from the same amount of electrical energy, more is transferred into light energy and less into heat energy. Engineers are working hard to increase the efficiency of many of the objects in our homes, so we use less electrical energy.

Society faces a huge challenge with trying to research and develop energy resources that don’t contribute to global warming and climate change. To find out more about energy resources visit our energy resources teacher guide.

### Types of Energy

Kinetic Energy is also known as movement energy. This form of energy can be found in anything that moves, such as a car on a highway or a grasshopper jumping. The equation for kinetic energy is KE=½mv2. This signifies that the amount of kinetic energy depends on two factors: velocity and mass. If we increase both of these, then the kinetic energy will increase.

Sound Energy is found in anything that vibrates. If the vibrations are between 20Hz and 20,000Hz, then they are said to be in the audible range and humans can hear them. Louder sounds (sound waves with bigger amplitudes) are said to have more energy.

Thermal Energy is also known as heat energy. A hot cup of coffee has thermal energy. Over time, this thermal energy is dissipated to the surroundings as the coffee cools down. The amount of thermal energy is related to the temperature of an object.

Chemical Energy is energy that is stored in the chemical bonds between molecules and atoms. This energy can be released during a chemical reaction as sound, heat, light, or kinetic energy. An example of something that has chemical energy is food or a battery.

Electrical Energy can be found in moving or static charges. Electrical energy can be transferred into many different types of energy. With a television, electrical energy is transferred to light, sound, and heat energy.

Gravitational Potential Energy is stored energy in anything that has a height above the ground. A ball at the top of a tower has gravitational potential energy. As it falls, the gravitational potential energy is transferred to kinetic energy. The amount of gravitational potential energy depends on the mass of the an object, its height, and the strength of the gravitational field.

Light Energy is also known as radiant energy. It is found in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Elastic Potential Energy is stored in things that are squashed or stretched, such as springs and rubber bands. The amount of energy stored depends on how compressed or stretched the object is, and how stiff the material is that the object is made of.

Nuclear Energy is stored in the nuclei of atoms. It is released during nuclear reactions such as fusion and fission. Examples of this can be found in nuclear reactors and atomic bombs.

Magnetic Energy is energy related to magnets or electromagnets. Maglev trains use magnetic energy to raise the trains off the ground.

## Essential Questions for Energy

1. What is energy?
2. What do different energy forms look like?
3. What is efficiency?

### Additional Energy Lesson Plan Ideas

1. Students make Sankey diagrams using arrows and shapes for a range of different processes.
2. Students create a narrative storyboard of the life of the English physicist, James Prescott Joule.
3. Students make a timeline storyboard to show how our ideas or uses of energy have changed over time.

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