Ancient Sumer created an irrigation system by building networks of canals and dams to water the crops. And then they invented the plow that made it easier to till the soil to plant crops because before this they had to do it with hand tools that took a long time and was harder.
Social Structure and Government
Kings ruled the civilization and the social structure was organized from levels. The top level were kings, priests, nobles and government officials. The middle level were merchants, artisans, framers and fishers. The lowest level were slaves. Scribes were people who wrote for kings and wrote down the laws and contracts.
Sumerians tried to please the Gods and make the Gods happy. They thought that if they pleased the Gods they would have a better afterlife when they die. They made statues to please and worship gods and built huge towers called ziggurets to worship the gods.
Metalworkers made weapons and cups plus decorative things like mirrors and jewelry. They played music mostly because it pleased the gods and people too. One of the most popular musical instruments was a Lyre. It was just like a small wooden harp and was decorated with precious stones.
Ancient Sumerians developed new technology that helped them with their life. They developed the wheel that helped with farming and were used on chariots for the army. Before the invention of the wheel, they used things called Sledges that were flat bottomed to drag things, so the wheel made it way easier and faster to do thanks and move things. They didn't get stuck in the mud so much and the animals could pull things easier and farther.
The Sumerians invented a written language called cuneiform using sharp tools to carve into clay tablets. Cuneiform was based on an old form of writing that used Pictographs that are symbols that stand for real objects. For example, sun or horse.