In the 1780s, the population of France was around 24 million and 700 thousand and it was divided into three estates. The First Estate was the Roman Catholic clergy, which numbered about 100,000. The Second Estate consisted of the French nobility, which numbered about 400,000. Everyone else in France; including merchants, lawyers, laborers and peasants; belonged to the Third Estate, which comprised around 98% of the French population. The Third Estate was excluded from positions of honor and political power; and was looked down upon by the other estates.
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
realistic politics based on the needs of the state
Tennis Court Oath
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
king and queen of France were spending much of frances money on themselves and not helping the starving people
(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty"
Reign of Terror
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821
The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for power
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Descendents of Spanish-born but born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status.
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.