It was mere skirmish and only one Mexican soldier was killed, but it nevertheless marks the beginning of the War for Texas Independence.
Texans laid low, avoiding the Mexican cannon fire, and returned fire with their deadly long rifles. The Mexicans were forced to retreat into San Antonio, giving the rebels their first major victory.
After successfully capturing San Antonio in December, rebel Texans fortified the Alamo, a fortress-like old mission in the center of town. Ignoring orders from General Sam Houston, the defenders remained in the Alamo as Santa Anna's massive Mexican army approached and laid siege in February of 1836.
The Mexicans were routed. Santa Anna was captured alive and signed several papers recognizing Texas independence and ordering his generals out of the territory. Although Mexico would try to re-take Texas in the future, San Jacinto essentially sealed Texas' independence
Fannin was also executed, as were the wounded who could not walk. The Goliad Massacre, following so closely on the heels of the Battle of the Alamo, seemed to turn the tide in favor of the Mexicans.
In less than two hours the Alamo was overrun. All of the defenders were killed, including Davy Crockett, William Travis, and Jim Bowie. After the battle, "Remember the Alamo!" became a rallying cry for the Texans.