The Berlin Wall fell on November 9, 1989. The wall stood until the head of the East German Communist Party announced that citizens of the GDR could cross the border as they pleased.
Mikhail Gorbachev won the Noble Peace Prize on October 15, 1990. He won for his efforts to help bring the Cold War to a peaceful end.
December 25, 1991 Gorbachev announced the end of the Soviet Union and his resignation of being the final leader. Gorbachev handed over power to the Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
On January 11-13, 1991 a Soviet crackdown on the Baltic States pro-independence movement in Lithuania happened to re-establish the state of Lithuania. The crackdown left 14 civilians dead and 702 injured.
August 24, 1991 was the day of the Soviet Coup, this was an attempt by the government members of the USSR to take control of the country from Gorbachev. December 25, 1991 Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as the last Communist leader of Russia.
July 1, 1991 Boris Yeltsin was the first president of the Russian Federation. Serving from 1991 to 1999 until Vladimar Putin took over as acting president.