Congress declared war on Great Britain at James Madison's request in 1812. The thing was america's army then as 7,000 poorly trained men and a navy of 16 ships. America tried to take Canada but failed every time. This war lasted until December of 1814, a least this was when Britain and America signed a treaty. Although on January 8th, 1815 the battle of New Orleans happened since news didn't reach them in time.
The XYZ Affair
During the war of 1812, there was a battle at fort McHenry. Francis Scott Key watched this battle and was happily surprised to see the american flag still up after a night full of fighting. This caused him to write "The Star-Spangled Banner"
The Monroe Doctrine
NO EUROPEAN COLONIZATION
Before, during, and after the war, Latin American Nations started their own revolutions against Spain. The Latin Americans were successful, this made America excited and the British supported the Latin Americas. But other European countries weren't so happy, so the British asked if America to help them let other countries know to leave the Latin Countries alone. They did help but this also caused the Monroe Doctrine.
The battle of New Orleans
The XYZ affair was when President Adams sent 3 envoys to tell France to stop the attacks, but the French foreign minister Talleyrand refused to talk to the Americans. So instead he sent 3 agents to tell the envoys that Talleyrand was to be given a large sum of money to have a peace talk. These agents later on became known as X, Y, and Z. Of course the envoys refused. When the XYZ affair story reached America, it outraged the Americans.
In 1823, President James Monroe made the Monroe Doctrine. It created a new policy saying that European colonization was no longer allowed in the US.
The Battle of New Orleans was technically a random unnecessary battle, but was actually the final battle of the war of 1812. On January 8th, 1815, 7,500 British troops met 7,000 militia in battle. The results were an American victory, British had 2,000 dead or wounded, meanwhile the Americans had 20 dead or wounded. Although the battle was unnecessary since 2 weeks earlier America and British diplomats signed a peace treaty, but the news didn't reach the armies in time