The regions that were affected due to the compromise were the northern and southern regions of the U.S. Specifically, the Northern states and Southern states were focused on being appeased by Clay's compromise.
Who proposed the compromise?
To pacify both the Southern and Northern states, Clay focused on different compromises that would help both regions. To appease the North, California would be admitted to the Union as a free state. To appease the South, the compromise would promise a new strict fugitive law on slaves.
Why was it significant?
The major controversy that surrounded the Compromise of 1850 was slavery. How much was slavery going to play a part in the U.S? Was the citizens of America going to vote for or against slavery?
How was it passed?
Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850.
The Compromise of 1850 was the last resort of making sure that the South and North wouldn't disunion, or lead to a war. This compromise would hopefully resolve the "all the questions in controversy between the free and slave states, growing out of the subject of Slavery."
Millard Fillmore, President Taylor's successor, heavily supported the Compromise of 1850 and considered it the "final settlement" for the controversy of slavery between the North and South.