The Crusuades were a migration of Europeans to the holy land. Most people who went were peasants.
The king of England claimed the kingdom of France as his because the king of France died and had no heir to back him up. England dominated the early years of the war. They won the notable battles of Crey and Agincourt with the help of the longbow. Some English forces also used primitave cannons to attack faroff forces. New technology made castles and old weapons obsolete. Kings needed big armies.
Joan of Arc was a 17-year-old peasant who believed that God had chosen her to save France. She led the French to a series of major victories in 1429 and 1430. She was captured by the English and executed by the burning in 1431.
Growth of Towns
In a port Italy, workers unload a ship´s cargo and also release rats covered in fleas carrying the Bubonic Plague. ¨A pocket full of posies¨ was said to be flowers people carried to ward off diseases. ¨ We all fall down¨ or die.
A group of local barons took advantage of John´s decreased power to stage a rebellion. Magna Carta made the king subject to the law of the land and limited his authority. Although the Magna Carta did not benefit ordinary English people at this time, its guarantee of certain individual rights would have a great impact on the development of democracy.
People have been moving to towns since about 1000. With about a third of the workforces wiped out, employers desperate for help, increased wages to attract workers. As a result, the manor system began to fall apart.