In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints, visualizing his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’, as he called them.
The making of Nationalism in Europe:
Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into Kingdom, duchies and cantons these divisions were having their autonomous rulers.
Unification of Italy
Giuseppe Mazzini had played an important role in the unification of Italy. He formed a secret society called ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles, to spread his goals. Under Chief Minister Cavour. Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the kingdom of the two Sicilies and with the help of the local peasants, drove out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as King of United Italy.
Unification of Germany
In the 18th century, Germany was divided into a number of states. May 1848, a large number of political associations came together to vote for an all-German National Assembly. Their representatives met at Frankfurt and the Frankfurt Assembly proposed the unification of Germany as a constitutional monarchy under the King of Prussia as emperor
The King of Prussia rejected the offer and the liberal initiative of nation building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy, the military and the ‘Junkers’. Prussian ministers and Bismarck gathered in the Palace of Versailles and proclaimed the Prussian King, Kaiser William, the new German Emperor.