On February 15, 1564, Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Duchy of Florence, Italy. A few years later, he and his family migrated to Florence where he properly started his education.
In 1583, he enrolled into the University of Pisa to study medicine which he was fascinated by a range of subjects, especially math. Eventually, he convinces his father to let him study mathematics and natural philosophy instead.
Galileo's relationship with the church
YOU ARE NOW UNDER HOUSE ARREST FOREVER
HOW DARE YOU GO AGAINST THE CHURCH?
In 1609, Galileo created his own telescope by trials and errors. That certain magic instrument, 1.27 meters long, with a convex lens in front and another concave eyepiece lens- allowed him to become the father of modern astronomy.
In 1632, Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Chief World Systems, an essay on the relative merits of the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems, including all the evidence that the telescope observations collected to the latter.
His scientific militancy earned him the persecution and condemnation of the Catholic Church. The reason for this is because his discoveries were threatening the church's teaching and went against the bible. Several trials later, he was pressured to recant from his discoveries and was sent to house arrest.
Galileo Galilei died under house arrest, near Florence, in 1642. While he did have to renege on his ideas, no one could take away from him the title of father of modern astronomy, for opening the eyes of humanity to a new universe.