After the death and resurrection of Christ, the church became more involved and many events occurred that affected the church. The first translation of the Old Testament, called the Septuagint became popular and was important because it offered people who spoke Greek to now read the Bible.
The Old Testament gets Translated to Greek
The Controversy of Arianism
Two important philosophies influenced Christian doctrines and ethics, they were called Platonic and Stoicism. Platonic doctrine was the idea of Plato's and Socrates which revealed the idea of the immortality of the soul and putting the invisible purely rational world past our perfect world.
Greek Philosophies that influenced the development of Christian doctrines and ethics
The Council of Nicea
Then Rome began to persecute Christians, Nero and Diocletian were the worst persecutors. It was ordered that all Christian buildings and books were to be destroyed. The "Edict of Milan" ended persecution but it left a big dent on Christianity.
The Edict of Milan
The Persecution of Christians
Although the movement of Christianity was small there was one person that was considered to be the most important person after Jesus, Paul the Apostle. In the beginning, he was not a follower until he converted to Christianity. He faced many struggles and didn't convert until he had a vision, he claimed that he saw the Lord and after this, he began to follow and pursue the life of a Christian.
Paul the Apostle
"I believe that the God of Israel is the only true God, but I also believe that the universe has multiple levels and is filled with spiritual belongings."
The Christian Empire 313-476 AD
Chaos in the Western Empire and the Fall of Rome
The Church began to change rapidly after the persecution of Christians. One big event that occurred was the Conversion of Constantine. Constantine accepted Christianity and was the first emperor to do so. The reason he converted was because he had a dream that his victory was owed to the Christian God and thus, he converted.
The Birth of Islam and the Oriental Church
The Controversy of Arianism came into play when it was said that only the Father was eternal and the son and word are not. It attempted to preserve monotheism and the immutability of God.
The Great Schism of 1054 AD
After the problems with Arianism occurred the Council of Nicea was called by Constantine to reexamine the thoughts. They talked about the beliefs of Arianism. The Nicene Creed was created to signify the equality with the Son and the Father.
Leo the Great
The Edict of Milan was signed by Constantine and Licinius, it proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. It was a way to secure the religion and other people would have to accept it.
The Council of Constantinople
High Point of the Middle Ages 1054-1303 AD
The Early Middle Ages 476-1054 AD
In the beginning of this era Barbarians began to take over and live in Roman territories. This was known as Chaos in the Western Empire and the Fall of Rome. They also implemented the Arian heresy onto Christians because of the worldly issues like poverty, hunger and disaster.
Monasticism reform a Corrupt Church
As Christianity continued to spread, it reached Islam, this is known as the Birth the Islam. Islam conquered the most important areas of ancient Christianity, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Carnage. Two groups then split off from the church- Nestorians and Monophysites. Nestorians went to Arabia, India and China. Monophysites moved to Egypt, Ethiopia and Syria.
With all of the tension in the church the Great Schism of 1054 AD occurred. The East and West church had many differences. The cause of the split was because of the excommunication between the Eastern and Western Pope.
Gothic Churches Replace Basilicas
Leo the Great who was a Pope, worked hard to control the heresies and he always displayed endless dedication. He was known as one of the most administrative Popes of the ancient church.
The Council of Constantinople was created based of the Council of Nicea, it was based on a baptismal creed and it also declared the equality of the Holy Spirit with the Father and the Son.
Anselm's Doctrine of the Atonement
The Late Middle Ages 1303-1453 AD
After the church became corrupt there were things put into place to try and help it. The Monks attempted to reform the church by placing rules. Some of those boundaries were that Priests were required to be celibate. Monks were then sent to different communities and developed from there.
The Decline of the Papacy
Because of Christianity spreading, people wanted to take over land. The Crusades were carried out to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims, but most were ineffective. By the end of the 4th crusade, Western Christians had taken over Constantinople and took it from the Eastern Christians. As the church was corrupt the looks of the buildings began to change.
Reformers and Mystics Start Early Reform
Gothic churches began to replace Basilicas, ancient basilicas had more of a “Romanesque” look, while Gothic churches had high ceilings and many windows. People debated on whether this change brought more people into the church or made the church more corrupt because of all the money being spent on the buildings.
The Fall of Constantinople
Bonaventure was popular during this era because of his writings that were believed in the Middle Ages. He was a theologian and a philosopher. He was later declared a doctor of the church by Pope Sixtus V. His writings are now collected under the name Pseudo-Bonaventure.
The Doctrine of Atonement was the foundational truth of Christianity that Jesus died on the cross for our sins. This was so important because through all the corruptness this came back to the truth to help people see what was important to focus on.
Conquest and Reformation 1453-1600
Conquest and Colonization
While the church was still corrupt Popes in the East and West started to focus too much on power and they also became corrupt. The Decline of Papacy happened because of this. During this the Great Western Schism happened because two Popes were claiming to be “the Pope.”
He posted the 95 theses, to dispute the corruptness and this started the Protestant Reformation. The reformation was an act to call Christians to depend on the Bible, not the Pope or the Church.
There were many actions taken to reform the corrupt church and one of them was taken by Reformers and Mystics. Teachers began to teach simpler Christianity. The Bible became a central focus, and Christianity grew outside the authority of the church.
When the Council of Trent was created, it rejected the Protestant Reformation and it liked the Catholic beliefs. Missionary efforts were enacted all around the world and this started a new Reformation.
After the attempt to take over the Holy Land, the capital of Christianity fell to Muslim turks and this was known as the Fall of Constantinople. The center of Eastern Christianity became the Russian Orthodox church. The Bible got translated to English which was helpful for the teachers to teach more people and for more people to learn about it.
Martin Luther was a german professor of theology. He was also a composer, priest, monk and an important figure during the Protestant Reformation. He rejected teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther wrote and proposed the 95 theses.
John Wycliffe insisted that faith and reason are linked and that the Bible should be read in each person's own language. He rejected transubstantiation and denied papal authority. Rome declared him a heretic but he died of a stroke beofre they could kill him.
Martin Luther's 95 theses were written as a protest against the selling of indulgences. It was a list of questions and propositions for debate. On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of Wittenberg Castle Church.
The 17th and 18th Century
This era was a turning point for the church. The church began to abuse the inhabitants of non-Christian lands. Their effort to conquest and colonize those lands was ineffective. People began to take advantage of the sale of indulgences and Martin Luther was fed up and opposed the sales.
This era tried to get at the idea of peace. The Thirty Years war lasted from 1618 to 1648. The Peace of Augsburg was created to give each country a choice of religion, but the peace did not last. After the Protestant Reformation ended there were very few outcomes.
The Thirty Years War
Puritans and Pietists worked in their own ways to help the church. Puritans wanted to purify the church from political and Roman Catholic influence. The Pietists used strict doctrine causing some to leave the church and to practice their faith in the new world.
Puritans and Pietists Emerge
Rise of Religious Liberalism
They came to America to explore their religious freedom among colonists and others, this was known as the First Great Awakening. Thousands converted and had intense manifestations.
The First Great Awakening
Modern Protestant Missions Movement
George Whitefield preached in front of the established church and led many meetings in England and the American colonies. He is the founder of Methodism and the evangelical movement.
The Westminster Confession was a reformed confession of faith. It adopted the confessional documents as containing the system of doctrine taught in the Holy scriptures.
The 19th Century
Focusing on commitment and confirmation with God the Altar Call Conversion taught people to see the realization of salvation through the forgiveness of sins. Charles Finney introduced "coming forward" where people repented and were prayed for to be forgiven for their sins.
End of Modernity
Altar Call Conversion
Jesus’ teachings were being used more often, but some of his morals were rejected, this event was known as the Rise of Religious Liberalism. David Brainerd’s diary became very popular because it taught about sharing the gospel around the world.
Conservative- Liberal Divide
The Modern Protestant Missions Movement was when people began to commit to global Protestant missions. Protestants made up less than 1% of Asia, Africa, and Latin Americas populations. The number grew 10% in countries that were mission fields.
Growth of Non-Western Christianity
Charles Finney was an American Presbyterian minister and leader. He has been known as the Father of Modern Revelation. Because of him, many scholars began to read the Bible from a rational, humanist and critical approach.
The Sinner’s prayer was used as a prayer of repentance, they used it when people had a desire to form or renew a personal relationship. It is stated above.
The Five Fundamentals
“Father, I know that I have broken your laws and my sins have separated me from you. I am truly sorry, and now I want to turn away from my past sinful life toward you. Please forgive me, and help me avoid sinning again. I believe that your son, Jesus Christ died for my sins, was resurrected from the dead, is alive, and hears my prayer. I invite Jesus to become the Lord of my life, to rule and reign in my heart from this day forward. Please send your Holy Spirit to help me obey You, and to do Your will for the rest of my life. In Jesus' name I pray, Amen.”
The 20th Century
Into this era, Western civilization began to believe that technology and reason solved every human problem, but after the wars they realized that it actually made the world corrupt and evil. The End of Modernity came upon them.
The Conservative-Liberal Divide was the issue of liberals believing that fundamentalists were too intolerant and old-fashioned. They focused on conversion over and against the issues of social justice.
When the churches began in America they also spread to the rest of the world. Almost all non-western Christians are pentecostal today. This was known as the Growth of Non-Western Christianity. Churches began to self theologize and became self lead.
Karl Barth rejected the conservative forms of Christianity, he instead embarked a new theological path called dialectical theology. He then became a leader in the confessing church in Germany.
There was then a response by the Conservative Protestants to write the “Five Fundamentals” and it became a trend. They embraced the beliefs but opposed some of the things stated like evolution.
My Integration questions are on paper that I handed in to you!