King Charles I believed in the divine right of kings (where the only power higher than the monarchy is God), parliament tried to limit his power with the petition of power.
Hi I'm James ll and I'm catholic
In 1642 The civil war started, the supporters of the king were called Royalists or Cavaliers whereas the supporters of parliament were called Roundheads. Oliver Cromwell was the army general for parliament.
King Charles lost the battle and Oliver Cromwell ordered him to be beheaded in the square. he was the first and only king to be beheaded.
Bill of Rights
Eventually the Monarchy is restored and King Charles's son Charles ll is made king. He did not believe in the divne right of kings and therefore was no threat to parliament. but when James ll becomes king, he is openly Catholic and that threatens parliaments power.
A Group of English Nobles ask William of Orange and his wife Mary (James ll daughter) to claim the throne and they accept it. James ll fled to France When he realized he had little support from England.
After William of Orange and Mary of Orange accept the throne they used the Bill of Rights to lay a foundation for a good Constitutional Monarchy. Together Monarchy and parliament ruled together and destroyed The Divine Right of Kings