The greatest military power among pre-inca cultures was the Wari. They dominated the high deserts of Central Peru from 500 A.D. to 1000. With their strong military the wari took over the Nasca and others. They established the first empire in the region of the Andes Mountains.
The Inca began their conquest of western south America in 1200 .A.D. With the leadership of the Emperor Pachacuti his empire expanded rapidly. Pachacuti conquered widespread areas with a powerful military and strong central government. He transformed the Inca capital Cusco into a stone city of 100,000 people.
Thirty distinct cultures lived in the pacific Northwest region from California to Alaska. It was one of the most populated parts of North America. Along The Southern Coast of Alaska a culture called Tlingit thrived . Tlingit means "The people of the Tides". They were superb sailors and fishers. Their most important food was salmon.
Around 1000 B.C. The Ancient Pueblo began to farm in many parts of the south west desert. The Ancient Pueblo adapted to the environment by farming the land and building complex structures. Some structures were made of stone and adobe. The ancient Pueblo used a technique called dry farming to grow crops using little water they grew mostly corn, beans, and squash.
Between 1000 B.C. and 500 A.D the Adena and Hopewell lived east of the Mississippi River. They are known as Mound Builders because of the huge mounds of earth they built. The mounds were used for religious and ceremonial reasons. The Mound builders relied mostly on hunting and gathering but they tamed wild plants and farmed Barley.
The Great Plains is a area of flat windswept grasslands that stretched north from texas to canada. Early tribes settled near the region's major rivers and established permanent villages. To survive the winters some tribes built earth lodges out of soil and grasses to house whole families. They relied mostly on hunting, gathering and fishing. Farming was not easy on the dry grasslands of the plains.