The Process of Translation Part Two

The Process of Translation Part Two
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  • Just like there are different types of plants, there are also several kinds of tRNA molecules. They all share the commonality of looking like a clover leaf. They tend to become stable by forming stem-loop structures and can be anywhere between 75-95 nucleotides in size. Their nucleotides could be modified like with uridine being modified to pseudouridine, and they could also be referred to as being the "acceptor arm." The sequences are common among them with CCA having a 5' to 3' directionality and ACC having a 3' to 5' directionality. When an amino acid gets attached to a tRNA molecule, a process known as charging occurs.
  • The process of an amino acid attaching to a tRNA molecule is a high energy-charging process known as an acyl bond, which can be learned more about in many science textbooks. First, the amino acid is attached to an ATP molecule through the phosphate group in a process known as adenylation. This causes the release of a pyrophosphate and an adenylated amino acid. Next, the tRNA synthetase will assist in making sure that the adenylated amino acid becomes tightly bound to the incoming tRNA. It is important to note that only one tRNA synthetase could take care of charging all the amino acids to the tRNA in some instances. Most organisms have 20 different tRNA synthetases. This enzyme is something that could be very specific, but also allows room to be more broad.
  • I will wrap up translation with an overview of codons, which should be envisioned as a line like the one to the left. The stringency of the anti-codons has resulted in a fewer number of anti-codons than codons. If you take AUG as an example, the third letter will always be the less stringent of the other two letters and the complementation would therefore always be there. It does not matter what the third letter is. Organisms can therefore get away with having only 44 tRNA species because of this stringency.
  • Wow. Thank you so much!
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