The Tragedy of Richard III remains one of the most chilling tales of the potential destructiveness of a man’s ambition and pride. Engage students with Storyboard That's premade activities and lesson plan ideas!
Richard III play Lesson Plan Shakespeare Themes motifs, symbols
PROPHECIES, GHOSTS, CURSES, AND DREAMS
THE MURDER OF TWO PRINCES
Richard’s royal symbol is a boar, which Lord Stanley sees in a dream and subsequently begins to fear for his and Hastings’ safety from Richard (and rightly so). A boar is also an animal that can only be killed by a nobleman; this foreshadows Richard’s death at the hands of Richmond. Richard is also referred to as a spider, a toad, and a hedgehog. These ugly animals accentuate Richard’s deformities and appearance.
Richard’s deformities indicate an inner evil to his soul. He has a hunchback; his arm is withered (which he later attributes to witchcraft from Queen Elizabeth and Lady Shore, which allows him a reason to kill Hastings), his face is ugly, and he was born prematurely. Shakespeare makes a point to focus on Richard’s physical defects to show the audience that yes, indeed, his defects run much more deeply: only someone this ugly could commit such horrible acts.
Richard uses a false prophecy to manipulate Edward into imprisoning Clarence. Queen Margaret’s curses come true. Clarence dreams that Richard throws him overboard; Stanley dreams that “the boar” will kill him and Hastings. The ghosts of Richard’s victims curse Richard and bring hope and high spirits to Richmond. All of these elements work together and to highlight fate’s role (rather than free will) in driving the battle over the throne.
Richard’s request that the two princes be murdered seems to be the ultimate evil in many ways. It ends Buckingham and Richard's alliance. At the same time, if the audience had any sort of sympathy for Richard before this, it is the breaking point for sympathy. The two boys are young and innocent, and to kill children is the ultimate sin in most people’s eyes. This is the beginning of the end for Richard’s quest for power.