In the second half of the 19th Century, century-magic lanterns and stereopticons were used in the classroom.
Motion Picture Projectors were also one of the first media devices to be used in the classroom.
In the early 20th Century, visual education was used till at least 1908. Keystone View Company published the Visual Education
The first instructional films were published in 1910.
Edgar Dale's, Cone of Experience, offered a continuum ranging from abstract to concrete sensory stimuli.
The Ford Foundation and its agencies spent more than $170 million dollars on educational television between the 1950's-60's
In the 1970's educational technology and instructional technology began to replace audiovisual instruction to describe the application of media for instructional purposes.
In the 1980's, after the microcomputers became available to the public, there was a growing interest in using computers in the classroom.
The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework was created, emphasizing that educational technology should exist in the interplay between pedagogical knowledge
By January 1982, computers were being used in 40% of all elementary schools and more than 75% of all secondary schools in the United States.
By 1995, rapid advances in computer and other digital technology lease to the use of media for instructional purposes.
From a national survey from 1998, it was found that in 1995 there was 1 computer per 8 students and by 1998 there was 1 computer per 6 students
Bransford, Brown, and Cocking suggests that technology can support learning by: -Bringing exciting curricula into the classroom -To provide tools and scaffolds that enhance learning, support thinking and problem solving, model activities and guide practice. -To give students and teacher more opportunities for feedback, reflection and revision -To build local and global communities that are inclusive of teacher, administrators, parents, and students -To expand opportunities for teacher learning that include helping teachers to think differently about learners and learning.
The field of instructional design and technology encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve and performance in a variety of settings.
As we move into the future, the National Education Technology Plan articulates a vision of equity, active use, and collaborative leadership to make everywhere, all-the-time learning possible.
References Mccombs, B. (2015). Learner-Centered Online Instruction. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2015(144), 57-71. National Education Technology Plan | Office of Educational Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2016, from http://tech.ed.gov/netp/ Orlando, J. (2014). Educational technology: A presupposition of equality?. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 42(4), 347-362. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. ETR&D Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(1), 53-64. TPACK.ORG. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2016, from http://www.tpack.org/