The sunlight, the main source of all energy, shines down onto the earth. It supplies energy and nutrients for plants and animals. The yellow arrow represents light energy.
Plant (Autotroph) Cell; Aerobic Respiration
Once the sunlight makes it's way to the earth, it shines down onto a plant, or a tree in this case. 100,000 Kilo Joules, or KJ (Amount of energy) is given to the plant, but only keeps 10% and loses 90% due to energy dissipated.
Plant to Primary Consumer
The plant obtains H2O, CO2, and sunlight through the roots, stomata, and chloroplasts. The plant transports these nutrients by the chlorophyll, the stomata, and the xylem vessels. The plant eliminates O2 the the root cell walls and leaves.
Animal (Heterotroph) Cell; Aerobic Respiration
Along with the light energy being brought in by the plant, the plant also brings in water and CO2. The products that the plant will make from these materials will be the reactancts of other organsims.
Light, CO2, and H2O are brought in to the chloroplasts. The chloroplasts create glucose and ATP. The glucose is stored in the vacuole, and later used in the mitochondria. The mitochondria breaks down the glucose to create H2O and CO2.
36 ATP Produced
The deer (primary consumer), consumes the plant and is given 10,000 KJ. The deer loses 90% of the energy and keeps 10% (1,000).
= Chemical Energy (Ech)
The animal cell brings in glucose from nutrients it has obtained, and oxygen from the air into the mitochondria. The mitochondria breaks the molecules down into H2O, CO2 and 36 ATP
36 ATP Produced
In anaerobic respiration, glucose travels into the cell. It is broken up by the cytoplasm into CO2 (waste product), and either lactic acid or alcohol from fermentation.
Nutrients Throughout the Heterotroph
The wolf (secondary consumer), hunts and eats the deer and is given 1,000 KJ. The wolf loses 90% of the energy due to energy dissipated, and keeps 10% of the energy consumed.
The Nitrogen Cycle
The human had a very successful hunting trip.
The Water Cycle
The wolf was killed by the human, and eaten. The human receives 100 KJ of chemical energy, but loses 90% of energy due to dissipation.
The Carbon Cycle
The human obtains food and gas through the mouth, pharynx, and lungs. The food is digested by going through the esophagus to the stomach to the small intestine to the large intestine to the rectum to the anus, where it is eliminated. Food is transported by veins and vessels. Gas is transported by the lungs and blood vessels.
Nitrogen from the atmosphere (N) travels into the soil. It is broken down by bacteria into ammonia (A). The ammonia is further broken down by nitrifying bacteria into nitrates (Nitrate). A plant absorbs the nitrate. A bunny consumes the plant and excretes more ammonia back into the soil to be broken down again.
Water evaporates from oceans, rivers, lakes, etc. Condensation occurs and forms clouds. Clouds precipitate onto the earth. Runoff is where the water runs off of mountains and hills, and finds its way back to large bodies of water.
Factories burn fossil fuels, releasing carbon into the air. The carbon is obtained by the plant in photosynthesis, they release organic carbon. Animals consume the plants, obtaining carbon. Once dead, the animals decay into the ground, contributing to fossils fuels.
Dead OrganismsWaste Products
Image Attributions: (https://pixabay.com/vectors/magnifying-glass-magnifier-glass-189254/) - TheUjulala - License: Free for Most Commercial Use / No Attribution Required / See https://pixabay.com/service/license/ for what is not allowed (https://pixabay.com/illustrations/hatch-colored-pencil-scratches-2460786/) - geralt - License: Free for Most Commercial Use / No Attribution Required / See https://pixabay.com/service/license/ for what is not allowed (https://pixabay.com/vectors/wolf-face-head-gray-brown-animal-30695/) - Clker-Free-Vector-Images - License: Free for Most Commercial Use / No Attribution Required / See https://pixabay.com/service/license/ for what is not allowed (https://pixabay.com/vectors/bunny-hare-rabbit-gray-grey-155674/) - OpenClipart-Vectors - License: Free for Commercial Use / No Attribution Required (https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0) (https://pixabay.com/photos/kot-hundehaufen-funny-poop-2567407/) - Alexas_Fotos - License: Free for Most Commercial Use / No Attribution Required / See https://pixabay.com/service/license/ for what is not allowed