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Specialized Cells

Specialized Cells
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  • FAT CELL
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  • Labeled Diagram
  • Nucleus
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  • Location
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  • Function
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  • Fat cells are cells that store fat in our bodies. They are adapted for this having large fat reservoirs. The amount of cytoplasm they contain is small to maximize space for the fat reservoir.
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  • The biconcave shape allows for a larger surface area.
  • Small area of cytoplasm to allow for a larger fat reservoir.
  • No nucleus to allow for more hemoglobin.
  • Fat Reservoir
  • They are found all over the body: underneath the skin, around organs, and between muscles.
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  • To store energy in the form of fat; to insulate the body
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  • RED BLOOD CELL
  • Red blood cells carry gases around our bodies. They have a biconcave shape which allows for a larger surface area. They contain hemoglobin, which is essential for the transport of gases. They also have no nucleus, which allows for more hemoglobin. 
  • They are found in our blood.
  • To carry oxygen from the lungs to tissues all over the body; to carry carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs
  • CILIATED EPITHELIAL CELL
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  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
  • Cilia
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  • Ciliated epithelial cells have hair-like projections on top, known as cilia. These cilia move with a sweeping motion, which can move things such as mucus and dirt in the trachea, and egg cells in the fallopian tubes.
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  • Nucleus
  • Node of Ranvier
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  • They are found in the trachea and also in the fallopian tubes.
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  • In the trachea, they sweep mucus and dirt away from the lungs. In the fallopian tubes, the cells move eggs from the ovaries.
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  • NERVE CELL
  • Nerve cells are long elongated cells that are used to carry electrical signals around the body. They have many connections at either end to allow them to connect to other cells easily. The axon is insulated by a layer of fat known as the myelin sheath.
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  • Dendrite
  • Root hair increases the surface area of the cell.
  • Myelin sheath to insulate the cell
  • Vacuole
  • Axon
  • They are found in the brain, throughout the central nervous system, and in the peripheral nervous system.
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  • To carry electrical signals around the body
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  • ROOT HAIR CELL
  • Root hair cells absorb water and other nutrients from the soil. The long, finger-like hair increases surface area. The thin wall also allows for easier absorption.
  • Thin cell wall for easier absorption
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  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
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  • They are found in the roots of plants.
  • To absorb nutrients and water from soil
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  • EGG CELL
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  • Cytoplasm
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  • Nucleus
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  • Egg cells have a special cell membrane that only allows one sperm cell to fertilize it. They are very large compared to other cells in the body. They have a haploid nucleus containing half the amount of genetic material as other body cells have.
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  • Mitochondrion
  • Nucleus
  • They are produced in ovaries.
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  • They carry the mother’s DNA, and are essential during reproduction.
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  • MUSCLE CELL
  • Smooth muscle cells have a spindle shape that allows for close contact with other cells. They have the ability to contract, causing movement in smooth muscle tissue.
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  • They are found in many of our internal organs, such as the stomach.
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  • Used for many involuntary movements such as those around organs.
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  • SPERM  CELL
  • Sperm cells are small with a streamlined shape. They have a midpiece containing lots of mitochondria, and a haploid nucleus, which contains half the genetic information of other cells. At the back of the cell is a tail, known as a flagellum, that is used for propulsion.
  • Flagellum
  • Haploid Nucleus
  • Midpeice containing mitochondria
  • They are produced in the testes.
  • They carry the father’s DNA, and are essential during reproduction
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