Animal Farm by George Orwell is a dystopian vision of society based on the early years of communist Russia. It is an allegory filled with elements of what can happen in the wake of a popular revolution. Like many dystopias, the society's goal was to build a utopia where its members live in harmony, but these ideals quickly transformed into something darker.
The Commandments of Animalism... 7. All Animals are Created Equal
On the Manor Farm, Old Major gathers the animals and inspires them to revolt. When he dies, two pigs, Napoleon and Snowball, vow to continue his work, and lead the others in driving off the farmer. They establish a government where animals have rights.
The animals begin to read, write, and have beliefs. Food is plentiful, and the farm runs smoothly. When the pigs elevate themselves to positions of leadership, a struggle for power begins. Napoleon wins by having his dogs chase Snowball off the farm.
As supreme leader, Napoleon enacts changes to the governance of the farm, replacing meetings of all animals with a committee of pigs who will run the farm. Eventually, Napoleon's supremacy has him paranoid that someone will try to overthrow him.
Napoleon blames Snowball, the pig he chased away, for incidents happening on the farm. Using Snowball as a scapegoat, Napoleon begins to purge the farm, accusing other animals of conspiring with his old rival, and attacking them with dogs.
The animals become convinced they were better off with the farmer, Mr. Jones, than the tyranny that has come to be. Things get progressively worse on the farm. Animals are worked to the point of collapsing, and the commandments have been rewritten.
Animals are no longer equal. The pigs are beginning to take on human qualities - like walking upright. As the animals gaze at pigs and humans, they realize they can no longer tell the two apart.