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What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.


The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet


With these words, Juliet suggests the name of a thing does not matter, only what that thing is. She did have a motive for thinking this, of course, as it was Romeo’s family name, Montague, that posed such a barrier to their love.

No matter what they were named, William Shakespeare’s plays would still be great works of art, so it may not matter what we call them. Generally though, Shakespeare wrote three types of plays: Tragedy, Comedy, and History. These names help us understand the archetypes of a play and better analyze its events. After all, The Comedy of Romeo and Juliet would be a very different play from The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Perhaps it would be a farce about two star-crossed lovers, doomed to suffer humorous mistakes of identity and bumbling servants. It wouldn’t be the story of woe we are all so familiar with.

Common Themes in Shakespearean Plays


Despite their categorical differences, all of Shakespeare’s plays have a few things in common.


Time

Time itself becomes a character in most of Shakespeare’s plays. It is the “Character You Never See”, but arguably, like the role it takes in our own lives, Time is the most important.

  • In Comedies: Time works with the characters
  • In Tragedies: Time works against the characters
  • In Comedies: You know a Shakespearean play is a comedy if everything works out with enough time in a pleasing manner
  • In Tragedies: You know a Shakespearean play is a tragedy when time always runs out for the characters

When Shakespeare wants to control Time, he uses the length of the scenes in an Act:

  • Long scene: time slows down
  • Short scene: rapid movement of time
    • Effect on the audience: confusion, disorientation

Why? Chaos and confusion of the times are reflected in the structure of the play.


Unity

All of Shakespeare’s plays move toward unity. There is either unity in the plot, in the characters, or in the ruling class. Often this is shown through a marriage, an ascent to power after the overthrow of a corrupt monarch, or an agreement of peace.


Women

Women in Shakespeare’s Plays always know the truth. They are not easily fooled, nor are they always listened to by the men in the play. They are wiser than those around them, though, and they are often the most correct in their warnings to the heroes of Shakespeare’s plays.


The Monarchy

All of Shakespeare’s plays did not paint monarchs in a favorable light; however, he always made sure that beloved monarchs and the current Tudor dynasty were always treated as heroes. To this end, Shakespeare would often set his plays in another place, such as Italy or Scotland, to avoid seeming like he might be trying to point the finger at the current monarchy’s flaws. For instance, Queen Elizabeth I had no heirs, and there was very real fear about what kind of destabilization would occur in England upon her death. Shakespeare acknowledged and focused on these fears by writing The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, a story about another ruler with no heirs who, upon his death, sent the Roman empire into chaos. But, because it took place in Rome, and not London... Shakespeare had some plausible deniability that he might be criticizing the monarchy, and was able to keep his head firmly attached to his shoulders.



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Fun Facts about Shakespeare’s Plays

  • His plays were not published until 1623, seven years after Shakespeare’s death.
  • A lot of the transcriptions of Shakespeare’s plays were done by a theater-enthusiast, who would go to see the play and try to write down the dialogue – often, these enthusiasts were drunk and there were many errors attributed to their intoxication for many years.
  • One of the first dramatists to work extensively in blank verse (iambic pentameter, usually un-rhymed except at the parts he wanted the audience to pay close attention to).
  • He often threw in base comedy/humor to keep the peasants entertained.
  • His plays were written exclusively with the intent that they would be performed in the Globe Theatre.
  • Men always played female roles, and were usually teen-aged boys whose voices had not yet fully changed.

Shakespeareove tragedije


Shakespeareove tragedije najčešće su najlakše identificirati jer sadrže herojsku figuru, čovjeka plemenitog podrijetla, s fatalnim nedostatkom. Njegova slabost potiče njegov pad i propast onih oko sebe. Drugi elementi tragedije ozbiljna su tema i završavaju smrću nekoga važnog. U svojim tragedijama Shakespeare često uključuje preokret sreće. Shakespeareove tragedije sadržavale su sljedeće važne karakteristike:

  • Pokazuje da su ulozi visoki za znakove
  • Pokazuje kako one ne odgovaraju ambicijama
  • Jojnik mora uvijek biti baštinstveno dobar, ali on zaluta
  • Uvijek uključuje strašnu pogrešku u prosudbi
  • Predskazana je pojmom racionalnosti koja je izgubljena u propasti heroja
  • Supernaturalni proroci (istinitici, proroci, sudbina bogova), duhovi i vještice obično predviđaju pad heroja
  • Tragedija ne dovodi uvijek do smrti
  • Stanuje s inteligentnim bićima:
    • Inteligencija i loše odluke su tragične u usporedbi s izborima koje su napravile budale
    • Podiže naše težnje i poštovanje prema muškarcima i ženama (podiže publiku)
  • Trebao je zazivati ​​sažaljenje i strah: "Što ako je lik učinio drugačiji izbor?" ... "Što ako sam napravio drugačiji izbor?"

Poznate Shakespeareove tragedije


Shakespeare Histories



Shakespeareove povijesti također imaju zajedničke značajke, a najčešći je povijesni monarh kao glavni lik. Shakespeareova povijest uglavnom dramatizira Stogodišnji rat, između Francuske i Engleske, iako ne uvijek povijesno točne. Povijesti nisu bile dokumentarne, već društvena propaganda. Na primjer, Henry V je napisan kako bi promicao engleski patriotizam. Te predstave također prikazuju klasni sustav vremena, koji sadrže članove svakog društvenog statusa: od prosjaka do kraljeva, publika gleda na dinamične likove iz svih šetnje života.

Shakespeareove povijesti sadržavale su sljedeće važne karakteristike:

  • Povijesne činjenice zapravo nisu bitne - točnost nije ključna. Shakespeare nije povjesničar; on je dramaturg koji je zainteresiran za ljude, i dobra priča
  • Shakespeare je bio selektivan, i nerado uključiti sve informacije koje čine Tudorovu monarhiju izgledaju loše. Zapravo, bio je oprezan da osigura da Tudorova monarhija uvijek dođe kao heroja na kraju dana.
  • Shakespeareove povijesti dokumentiraju pad velikih vođa
    • To je poznato kao de casibusska drama, od latinske riječi koja znaci padati dolje; pada nešto
  • U Shakespeareovoj povijesti, pad jedne osobe zahtijeva uspon drugog
    • To postaje de ascendibus , od latinske riječi koja znači da ustane
  • Kazalište de casibus bilo je beznačajno u Engleskoj. Paean je grčki za "himnu hvale". Stoga su povijesti bile himne hvale za veličinu Engleske i zbog toga se često vide kao djela propagande.

Shakespeareove povijesti razbijene su u dva tetralogija, ili skupine od četiri drama:

Tetralogija uključujući Henry VI

  1. Prvi dio Henrika VI
  2. Drugi dio Henrika VI
  3. Treći dio Henryja VI
  4. Tragedija Richarda III *

Lancastrijska tetralogija

  1. Tragedija kralja Richarda II
  2. Prvi dio Henryja IV
  3. Drugi dio Henrika IV
  4. Život Henrika V

Shakespeare je također napisao dvije dodatne povijesti:

  • Život i smrt kralja Johna
  • Poznata povijest života kralja Henrika VIII

Ove dvije predstave bile su jedine dvije povijesti koje nisu bile zabrinute za uspon i pad kuća Lancastera. Život i smrt kralja Ivana odnosili su se na Shakespeareov osobni interes za Machiavellijanskim pristupom politici. Poznata povijest života kralja Henrika VIII. Nastavila je propagandnu svrhu Shakespeareove povijesti, slavivši Tudorovu dinastiju i otac kraljice Elizabete I.

Shakespeare je počeo pisati vladavinu Edwarda III , ali nije završio. Vjerojatno je odlučio napisati o kralju Edwardu III zbog svoje važnosti u poticanju stogodišnjeg rata svojim zahtjevom na francusko prijestolje 1337. godine. Edwardovi potomci također su se odvezli u Kuće Lancastera i York, što je dovelo do rata Roses i, naposljetku, dinastije Tudor nakon smrti Richarda III.

* Iako se Richard III često naplaćuje kao tragedija i vidljiv je u nekim krugovima kao međusobno zamjenjiv, igranje nedostaje jedna kritična karakteristika tragedije: Richard III nikad nije inherentno dobar lik koji ima pogrešku u prosuđivanju. Richard je zlo od samog početka, što je dokazano njegovom fizičkom deformacijom ( fizionomijom ) i njegovim planovima da svima, čak i svojim mladim nećama, unište sve kako bi došao do prijestolja.


Shakespeare komedije

Shakespeareove komedije obično sadrže razigrane elemente poput satiričnog jezika, punaca i metafora. Komedije sadrže i elemente ljubavi ili požude, s preprekama koje ljubitelji moraju prevladati tijekom igranja. Pogrešan identitet i prikrivanje često se koriste i na namjernim i nenamjernim načinima za strip efekt. Vrste Shakespeareovske komedije završavaju s nekom vrstom okupljanja ili braka. Komedije sadrže i složene parcele, s opsežnim zapletima, kako bi publika nagađala što će se dogoditi sljedeće. Često su ih gledali u pogledu njihovih umjetničkih zasluga; tragedije i epovi bili su podignuti iznad većine ostalih žanrova igara u Shakespeareovom vremenu.

Shakespeareove komedije sadržavale su sljedeće važne karakteristike:

  • Komedije su često dovele do zaključka da smo, kao ljudi, budale
  • Predmet nikada ne napušta tlo; uvijek se smanjuje do najnižeg zajedničkog nazivnika
  • Neprilično zemljište; često zbunjujuće
  • Predmet komedije obično nije sve što je ozbiljno

Dvije Shakespeareove komedije bile su Farce. Otišli su dalje u svojoj bazi komediji od ostalih komedije, a smatrali su se kontroverznim komedijama za svoje vrijeme. Karakteristike Farce uključuju:

  • Zemljište nema puno sadržaja
  • Klaunica "stuffs in" ad-libs. "Farce" dolazi od latinske farcire , što znači "držati se, ili stvari".
  • Uvijek postoji fizička komedija koju crta ne traži
  • Sadrži grubu ili nerafiniranu humor
  • Shakespeareove dvije Farce igre su Taming of the Shrew i Merry Wives of Windsor

Za 200 godina Shakespeareove komedije mislilo je ukupno 18 drama; međutim, krajem XIX. stoljeća, irski kritičar Edward Dowden smatrao je Shakespeareovim kasnijim pet predstava da posjeduju kvalitete srednjovjekovnih romana. Mnogi znanstvenici su se složili s Dowdenom, pa su ove igre često kategorizirane kao romane umjesto komedije.


Shakespeare Romances


Za one koji se slažu s Edwardom Dowdenom, Shakespeare je zapravo napisao samo 13 komedija; njegove kasnije pet igara sadrže karakteristike koje ih više povezuju s srednjovjekovnim romanima. Zapravo, u vrijeme kada su smatrali "tragikomedijama", a ne čistim komedijama. Ove pet reprodukcije uključuju: Dvije plemenite rođake, Cymbeline, Winter's Tale, The Tempest i Perikles, Prince of Tire . U stvari, najpopularnija sveobuhvatna publikacija Shakespeareovih djela, The Riverside Shakespeare kategorizira igre na ovaj način, tako da bi moglo biti vrijedno obratiti se studentima ili prezentirati ove radove kao romane, a ne komedije.

Shakespeareove romanse sadržavale su sljedeće važne karakteristike:

  • Ljubomora, sukobi, rat, pobuna i druge takve potencijalno tragične situacije otvaraju igru ​​i rješavaju se do kraja
  • Zemljišta se brzo kretaju i često uključuju nevjerojatne situacije
  • Uvijek postoji ljubavni interes, iako možda nije središnji dio igre
  • Istaknute muške figure tipično su starije od ostalih Shakespeareovih predstava
  • Elementi nadnaravne pomoći usmjeravaju zemljište
  • Likovi su obično plemstva, i obojani su u krajnostima svojih vrlina ili korupcije
  • Usredotočena na teme na ogromnoj razini, poput utjecaja na ljude kao cjelinu, a ne na trijumfe i propuste pojedinog karaktera


Classroom Applications and Uses

Example Exercises:


  • Students identify genres of Shakespeare’s plays, with a character likeness on their storyboard to show the elements of the genre they have chosen.
  • Students create storyboards that show and explain each genre of Shakespeare’s plays, using specific quotes from the text that highlight elements of the category.

Teachers can customize the level of detail and number of cells required for projects based on available class time and resources.



Rubric for Shakespearean Plays

Shakespearean Plays Rubric
Examplary
33 Points
Proficient
27 Points
Commendable
22 Points
Try Again
17 Points
3 Genres of Play(s):
  • Tragedies
  • Comedies
  • Histories
  • Student shows advanced understanding of genre, and has ALL examples/characteristics listed.
    Student shows proficient understanding of genre, and has a many examples/characteristics listed.
    Student shows basic understanding of genre, and has a few examples/characteristics listed.
    Work does not correctly identify genre. Or is not complete enough to score.
    Provides Explanation Using Direct Quotes
    Student has clearly provided the reader with many quotes relating to the genre.
    Student has provided some examples of quotes that relate to the genre.
    Student has identified one or two quotes that can relate the genre.
    Student has not identified traits of genre in the story/ No quotes.
    Overall Presentation:
  • Grammar
  • Mechanics
  • Correctness
  • Appeal
  • Student has no errors, and the work is commendable.
    Student has very few errors. Good effort has been displayed.
    Student has some mechanical issues; little effort is shown; somewhat appealing; partially incomplete.
    Student has grammar, mechanical or correctness issues that prohibit the understanding; visually unappealing; mostly incomplete.


    Common Core Standards

    • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.9: Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare)
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.10: By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

      By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.7: Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus)
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.9: Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.10: By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

      By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.7: Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)


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