What is Dilemma?
Do you remember a time when you were in difficult situations and had to make a difficult choice and each option was equally unpleasant? Perhaps you lied, and something terrible happened, or you were faced with the task of divulging the truth and being punished for lying. This mess is called a dilemma: a situation that challenges an agreeable solution. In literature, dilemmas form the central conflict many protagonists encounter. Many people face all kinds of dilemmas in life, and the choice they make can have long-lasting impacts. Sometimes these dilemmas have even caused changes in society and history! Common types of dilemmas include classic, ethical, and moral.
What is Classic Dilemma?
A classic dilemma is a choice between two or more alternatives, in which the outcomes are equally undesirable, or equally favorable. It does not typically involve a moral or ethical crisis, but the person or character’s everyday life may change as a result of their decision. As a young adult, some cases of classic dilemmas include:
- Deciding between colleges to attend
- Uncertainty about which job offer to take
- Wondering whether or not to make the move to a new city
They are more than simple choices, because they usually prompt the person to think about the outcomes of the choices. As a result, a character in a story may find themselves on an adventure, in fear for their lives, or instituting change because of the choice they made in their dilemma.
What is Ethical Dilemma?
Wondering how to define ethical dilemma? An ethical dilemma arises when human beings are forced to decide between two morally sound options, but they may have conflicting ethical standards with the established boundaries of a business, a governmental agency, or the law. Some real-life ethical dilemmas may involve following the truth versus being loyal to a best friend, following the laws or rules versus having compassion for an individual’s plight, going against company policy, and concerns about an individual person versus the larger impact on a community. An ethical dilemma differs from a moral dilemma because it very much involves following rules rather than one’s morality and moral reasons, although one’s conscience can certainly move an individual to consider breaking the rules.
Ethical dilemmas are especially important in the medical and criminal justice fields, and in careers such as social work and psychology. In addition, most public servants have to undergo applied ethics training to address common dilemmas if such a situation arises while working with the public on such cases. Recent advancements in science have also brought forward interesting and uncharted ethical dilemmas and conflicting obligations. Some moral dilemmas include:
- An administrative assistant in the business world discovers her boss has been laundering money, and the person must decide whether or not to turn him in.
- A doctor refuses to give a terminal patient morphine, but the nurse can see the patient is at the point of agony.
- A government contractor discovers that intelligence agencies have been spying on its citizens illegally, but is bound by contract and legalities to keep his confidentiality about the discovery.
Children may also face some ethical dilemmas. Some ethical decisions include:
- A friend got the math test ahead of time and says you can look at it. You struggle with math and you know it would help your grade if you knew the questions ahead of time. Because your friend is offering, it makes the moral dilemma more complicated.
- You are going to the movies with your friends and tickets are half price for kids who are under 12 years old. You are 13 years old, but could easily pass for younger.
- You are hanging out with a friend who isn’t very popular. You run into other friends who invite you to hang with them, but they do not want your friend to come. Do you risk losing your friend and living with guilt? Ethical conflicts such as this one are very common.
What is Moral Dilemma?
A moral dilemma definition is a situation in which a person is torn between right and wrong and looks at the very core of a person's moral principles, values, and personal philosophy. The choice the person makes may leave them feeling burdened, guilty, relieved, or questioning their values. A moral dilemma often forces the individual to decide which option he or she can live with, but any outcomes are extremely unpleasant no matter what, containing a mixture of both right and wrong. Moral dilemmas are often self-imposed and used to help people think through the moral reasoning for their beliefs and actions, and are common in psychology and philosophy classes. Some moral dilemmas examples include:
- The classic “lifeboat dilemma”, where there are only 10 spaces in the lifeboat, but there are 11 passengers on the sinking ship. A decision must be made as to who will stay behind.
- A train with broken brakes is speeding towards a fork in the tracks. On the left, there is a woman crossing with her two children; on the right, there is a man doing routine maintenance on the tracks. The engineer must decide which side to aim the speeding train towards. This is called the "Trolley Problem" and is frequently discussed in moral theory.
- A husband learns he has a terminal illness and he decides to ask his wife for assistance in ending the pain before it gets too bad.
- A friend discovers her best friend’s boyfriend is cheating. She must decide whether to tell her friend or keep it a secret.
Moral dilemmas also provide interesting social matter for students to examine in position and research papers. Common topics for such assignments often include:
- The Death Penalty
- Doctor-Assisted Suicide
- Ending the Drug War
- The Draft
- Government Spying
- Prison Reform
- Legalizing (or decriminalizing) Marijuana
- Fossil Fuels vs. Renewable Energy
Other Types of Dilemmas
Aside from the genuine dilemmas listed above, there are other, less commonly known, types. These include obligation dilemmas and prohibition dilemmas.
An obligation dilemma, often referred to as deontological dilemmas, involves conflicts between different duties or obligations and conflicting actions. In ethical terms, deontology is a framework of morality that asserts certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of their consequences. Here are some cases of these kinds of dilemmas:
- Truthfulness vs. Loyalty
- Promise vs. Consequences
- Honesty vs. Personal Gain
- Justice vs. Individual Rights
- Parental Duties vs. Personal Values
A prohibition dilemma involves a point of conflict between a prohibition or restriction and a perceived moral or ethical imperative. In these situations, individuals or groups may face a decision where adhering to a prohibition may lead to negative moral consequences or ethical concerns. Here are some examples of prohibition dilemmas:
- Whistleblowing Dilemma
- Censorship vs. Freedom of Speech
- Data Privacy vs. National Security
- Prohibition of Certain Research
- Access to Restricted Information
Famous Dilemmas in Literature
Hamlet by William Shakespeare
One of the most famous literary dilemmas appears in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The phrase “To be or not to be…”, is quite famous. However, many are not aware that these words embody the central conflict of Hamlet’s dilemma. Hamlet is comparing the agony of life, with the fear and uncertainty of death. While Hamlet is disappointed with his life, he is also scared of death, especially by suicide. He is frightened by what death has in store; it may be “sleep”, or it could be an experience worse than life. Hamlet’s dilemma is to stay living unhappily, or commit suicide and await uncertainty after life.
Silas Marner by George Eliot
In Silas Marner, Godfrey Cass has many dilemmas that he is unfortunately never able to rectify. Throughout the story, he makes one bad choice after another, because of moral and situational dilemmas controlling his life. Godfrey’s main dilemma centers on his secret, resented marriage to Molly Farren, an opium addict. The text suggests that he was led into this marriage by his swaggering younger brother, Dunstan. Dunstan uses this information to blackmail Godfrey, and keep him away from his true love, Nancy. The secret becomes the center of every problem in his life, and many dilemmas emerge from it. Does he escape Dunstan’s power by divulging the marriage to everyone, and lose Nancy’s love? Or, does he continue to court Nancy and lie to everyone, paying off Dunstan and Molly to hide the secret?
“The Lady or the Tiger” by Frank Stockton
In the short story “The Lady, or the Tiger” a young man is faced with death after falling in love with the daughter of a semi-barbaric king. The king was fierce and dealt with lawbreakers by having them stand trial, with fate as their judge. Led into an arena, they would have the choice of two doors. Behind the doors for this young man awaited either a beautiful maiden or a ferocious tiger. Either door was a dilemma because his heart had already been given to the princess. The day of his fateful reckoning he learned the princess had found out which door concealed the tiger and which the lady. The story ends without a resolution, and leaves the reader wondering which door the princess led her lover to choose. Did she allow him to be with another woman, or did that singular thought result in his death?
Shiloh by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor
In Shiloh, Marty knows that Shiloh belongs to Judd Travers, a mean man in town who neglects and abuses his dogs. Because he is hiding Shiloh from his parents and lying to them and Judd when he says he hasn’t seen the dog, Marty feels tremendous guilt and fear. However, he knows that if he returns Shiloh to Judd, the dog will be hurt or even worse. Marty’s dilemma is to hide the dog and continue lying, or return Shiloh to a place where he will be beaten and starved.
Tuck Everlasting by Natalie Babbitt
Tuck Everlasting is the perfect example of a classic dilemma. When Winnie meets Jesse and his family, she adores them and is intrigued by the fact that they have an everlasting life. When Winnie is given the opportunity to drink from the well and live forever with Jesse, she contemplates what to do. Her life would be forever changed if she drinks the water, but does she really want to go against nature and world imposed limitations in order to live forever?
Wolf Hollow by Lauren Wolk
Annabelle faces a very common dilemma. She and her siblings are being bullied by Betty, who harasses them daily. Annabelle knows that if she tells her parents, Betty will get angry and take it out on them, but she also doesn’t know if she can handle the situation on her own. This is a dilemma that children can easily relate to, as bullying is unfortunately very common and difficult to deal with.
There are so many great ways to visualize and explain dilemmas in literature. Teachers can customize the level of detail and number of cells required for projects based on available class time and resources.
- Identify a dilemma in a work of literature you have read.
- Create a storyboard to define dilemma in a work of literature. Use specific quotes from the text that highlight and explain the two equally unpleasant choices and moral requirements as it relates to the dilemma.
- Storyboard a real life dilemma that includes an internal and external conflict.
- Create custom worksheets for students to complete for a specific text.
- Create a poster that showcases an example of dilemma in literature or real life.
ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.2: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text
ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.2: Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text
ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme
ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.3: Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed)
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Choice of Scenes
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The main characters are accurately and clearly identified. Their actions are well matched to their actions in the story.
The main characters are mostly clear and identified. Their actions are mostly matched to their actions in the story.
The main characters are vaguely defined or identified. Their actions are somewhat matched to their actions in the story
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How to Teach Ethical Decision-Making
INTRODUCE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING
Begin by explaining the concept of ethical decision-making and its importance in personal and professional life. Discuss the benefits of making ethical choices and the potential consequences of unethical behavior.
TEACH ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS
Present different ethical frameworks or theories, such as consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics. Explain the key principles and considerations of each framework, providing examples to illustrate their application.
ANALYZE ETHICAL DILEMMAS
Introduce students to real-life or hypothetical ethical dilemmas relevant to their lives or the subject being taught. Guide them in analyzing the dilemmas by identifying the values, stakeholders, conflicting interests, and potential consequences involved.
INTRODUCE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
Teach students a step-by-step ethical decision-making process, such as the four-step approach: (1) Identify the ethical dilemma, (2) Gather information and consider alternative actions, (3) Evaluate the options based on ethical principles and frameworks, (4) Make a reasoned decision and take appropriate action.
APPLY ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING
Engage students in interactive activities, case studies, or role-playing exercises that require them to apply the ethical decision-making process. Encourage them to consider different perspectives, anticipate consequences, and make ethical choices based on the principles and frameworks discussed.
REFLECT AND DISCUSS
Facilitate a reflective discussion where students can share their decision-making process, reasoning, and the ethical considerations they encountered. Encourage critical thinking by asking questions that challenge their assumptions and explore the complexities of ethical decision-making.
Frequently Asked Questions about Teaching Moral and Ethical Dilemmas
Is a dilemma a conflict?
Yes, it is a type of conflict. A dilemma arises when one is faced with making a difficult choice between two or more options that each have their own disadvantages or unpleasant outcomes.
Which is the closest synonym for the word dilemma?
The closest synonym for dilemma would be a predicament. They both refer to a difficult situation or problem where solutions are limited and unsatisfactory.
What could be an ethical dilemma?
An example of ethical dilemma given in the passage is if a doctor refuses pain medication to a terminal patient in agony. Other examples could include deciding whether to report an unsafe work practice that could harm others but risks one's job, or choosing between telling the truth or protecting a friend from consequences of their actions.
Is dilemma an ethical issue?
Not necessarily; it is simply a difficult choice between unfavorable options. However, dilemmas can become ethical issues if the choices involve determining the right or wrong course of action from a moral standpoint. So while not all are ethical, some may pose ethical points of self-imposed conflict or bring ethical considerations to the forefront.
- Historic Route 66 • Randy Heinitz • License Attribution (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)
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