https://www.storyboardthat.com/da/articles/e/typer-af-shakespeare-skuespil

What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.


The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet


With these words, Juliet suggests the name of a thing does not matter, only what that thing is. She did have a motive for thinking this, of course, as it was Romeo’s family name, Montague, that posed such a barrier to their love.

No matter what they were named, William Shakespeare’s plays would still be great works of art, so it may not matter what we call them. Generally though, Shakespeare wrote three types of plays: Tragedy, Comedy, and History. These names help us understand the archetypes of a play and better analyze its events. After all, The Comedy of Romeo and Juliet would be a very different play from The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Perhaps it would be a farce about two star-crossed lovers, doomed to suffer humorous mistakes of identity and bumbling servants. It wouldn’t be the story of woe we are all so familiar with.

Common Themes in Shakespearean Plays


Despite their categorical differences, all of Shakespeare’s plays have a few things in common.


Time

Time itself becomes a character in most of Shakespeare’s plays. It is the “Character You Never See”, but arguably, like the role it takes in our own lives, Time is the most important.

  • In Comedies: Time works with the characters
  • In Tragedies: Time works against the characters
  • In Comedies: You know a Shakespearean play is a comedy if everything works out with enough time in a pleasing manner
  • In Tragedies: You know a Shakespearean play is a tragedy when time always runs out for the characters

When Shakespeare wants to control Time, he uses the length of the scenes in an Act:

  • Long scene: time slows down
  • Short scene: rapid movement of time
    • Effect on the audience: confusion, disorientation

Why? Chaos and confusion of the times are reflected in the structure of the play.


Unity

All of Shakespeare’s plays move toward unity. There is either unity in the plot, in the characters, or in the ruling class. Often this is shown through a marriage, an ascent to power after the overthrow of a corrupt monarch, or an agreement of peace.


Women

Women in Shakespeare’s Plays always know the truth. They are not easily fooled, nor are they always listened to by the men in the play. They are wiser than those around them, though, and they are often the most correct in their warnings to the heroes of Shakespeare’s plays.


The Monarchy

All of Shakespeare’s plays did not paint monarchs in a favorable light; however, he always made sure that beloved monarchs and the current Tudor dynasty were always treated as heroes. To this end, Shakespeare would often set his plays in another place, such as Italy or Scotland, to avoid seeming like he might be trying to point the finger at the current monarchy’s flaws. For instance, Queen Elizabeth I had no heirs, and there was very real fear about what kind of destabilization would occur in England upon her death. Shakespeare acknowledged and focused on these fears by writing The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, a story about another ruler with no heirs who, upon his death, sent the Roman empire into chaos. But, because it took place in Rome, and not London... Shakespeare had some plausible deniability that he might be criticizing the monarchy, and was able to keep his head firmly attached to his shoulders.



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Fun Facts about Shakespeare’s Plays

  • His plays were not published until 1623, seven years after Shakespeare’s death.
  • A lot of the transcriptions of Shakespeare’s plays were done by a theater-enthusiast, who would go to see the play and try to write down the dialogue – often, these enthusiasts were drunk and there were many errors attributed to their intoxication for many years.
  • One of the first dramatists to work extensively in blank verse (iambic pentameter, usually un-rhymed except at the parts he wanted the audience to pay close attention to).
  • He often threw in base comedy/humor to keep the peasants entertained.
  • His plays were written exclusively with the intent that they would be performed in the Globe Theatre.
  • Men always played female roles, and were usually teen-aged boys whose voices had not yet fully changed.

Shakespeare Tragedier


Shakespeares tragedier er typisk det nemmeste at identificere, fordi de indeholder en heltemodent, en mand af ædel afstamning, med en fatal fejl. Hans svaghed udfælder hans undergang og nedgangen af ​​dem omkring ham. Andre elementer i tragedien er et seriøst tema og slutter med en persons vigtige død. I hans tragedier indbefatter Shakespeare ofte en omvendt formue. Shakespeares tragedier indeholdt følgende vigtige egenskaber:

  • Vis indsatser er høje for tegnene
  • Viser hvordan de mangler deres ambitioner
  • Helden skal altid være iboende god, men han går på vild
  • Altid indebærer en forfærdelig fejl i dommen
  • Predikeret på begrebet rationalitet, som går tabt i heltens fejl
  • Supernaturale fortællere (sandhedstællere, profeter, formuefortællere), spøgelser og hekse forudsiger typisk heltenes undergang
  • Tragedien fører ikke altid til døden
  • Bor hos intelligente væsener:
    • Intelligens og dårlige beslutninger er tragiske sammenlignet med valg af narre
    • Hæver vores ambitioner og respekt for mænd og kvinder (det hæver publikum)
  • Skal påberåbe sig medlidenhed og frygt: "Hvad hvis karakteren havde lavet et andet valg?" ... "Hvad hvis jeg havde lavet et andet valg?"

Berømte Shakespeare Tragedier


Shakespeare Historier



Shakespeares historier har også fælles træk, den mest udbredte er en historisk monark som hovedperson. Shakespeare's historier dramatiserer mest hundredeårskriget mellem Frankrig og England, men ikke altid historisk korrekt. Historier var ikke dokumentarer, men social propaganda. Henry V , for eksempel, blev skrevet for at fremme engelsk patriotisme. Disse skuespil viser også tidens klassesystem, der indeholder medlemmer af hver social status: fra tiggere til konger, viser publikum dynamiske tegn fra alle samfundslag.

Shakespeares historier indeholdt følgende vigtige egenskaber:

  • Historiske fakta betyder ikke rigtig noget - nøjagtighed er ikke nøglen. Shakespeare er ikke historiker; han er en dramatiker, der er interesseret i mennesker og en god historie
  • Shakespeare var selektiv og tilbageholdende med at inkludere enhver information, der gør Tudor-monarkiet til at se dårligt ud. Faktisk var han omhyggelig med at sikre, at Tudor-monarkiet altid kom igennem som helterne i slutningen af ​​dagen.
  • Shakespeares historier dokumentere faldet af store ledere
    • Dette er kendt som et casibus drama, fra det latinske ord, der betyder at falde ned; faldet af noget
  • I Shakespeare's historie kræver en persons fald et andet menneskes opkomst
    • Dette bliver den ascendibus , fra det latinske ord, der betyder at stige
  • The Casibus drama var en paean til England. Paean er græsk for "lofsangsang". Derfor var historierne lofter til Englands storhed, og derfor ses de ofte som værker af propaganda.

Shakespeares historier blev brudt op i to tetralogier eller grupper af fire spiller:

Tetralogi inklusive Henry VI

  1. Den første del af Henry VI
  2. Den anden del af Henry VI
  3. Den tredje del af Henry VI
  4. Tragedien af ​​Richard III *

Lancastrian Tetralogy

  1. King Richard II's Tragedie
  2. Den første del af Henry IV
  3. Den anden del af Henry IV
  4. Henry Vs. Livets liv

Shakespeare skrev også to yderligere historier:

  • King Johns liv og død
  • Den berømte historie om kong Henry VIIIs liv

Disse to spil var de eneste to historier, der ikke var bekymrede for Lancaster House's opkomst og fald. King Johns liv og død handlede om Shakespeares personlige interesse i en Machiavellian tilgang til politik. Den berømte historie om kong Henry VIII's liv fortsatte propagandaformålet med Shakespeare's historier, fejrede Tudor-dynastiet og dronning Elizabeths fader.

Shakespeare begyndte at skrive Edward III's regering , men han færdiggjorde det ikke. Sandsynligvis besluttede han at skrive om kong Edward III på grund af sin betydning for at gnistre hundredeårskriget med hans påstand mod den franske trone i 1337. Edward's efterkommere forked også ud i huse i Lancaster og York, hvilket førte til krigen af Roser og i sidste ende Tudor-dynastiet efter Richard IIIs død.

* Mens Richard III ofte regnes som en tragedie, og ses i nogle cirkler som udskiftelige, mangler spillet et kritisk karakteristisk træk ved en tragedie: Richard III er aldrig en iboende god karakter, der har en fejl i dommen. Richard er ond fra begyndelsen, som det fremgår af hans fysiske misdannelse ( fysiognomi ) og hans planer om at ødelægge alle, selv hans unge nevøer, for at nå tronen.


Shakespeare Comedies

Shakespeare's komedier indeholder normalt legende elementer som satirisk sprog, puns og metaforer. Komedier indeholder også elementer af kærlighed eller lyst, med forhindringer, som de elskende skal overvinde gennem spillet. Fejlede identiteter og forklædninger bruges ofte både på forsætlig og utilsigtet måde til komisk effekt. En stapel af Shakespeares komedie slutter spillet med en eller anden form for genforening eller ægteskab (e). Comedies indeholder også komplekse plots, med omfattende plot twists, for at holde publikum gætte hvad der vil ske næste. De blev ofte set ned i forhold til deres kunstneriske fordele; tragedier og epics blev forhøjet over de fleste andre genrer af skuespil i Shakespeares tid.

Shakespeares komedier indeholdt følgende vigtige egenskaber:

  • Komedier førte ofte til den konklusion, at vi som mennesker er narre
  • Emnet efterlader aldrig jorden; det reducerer altid til den laveste fællesnævner
  • Usammenlignende plot; ofte forvirrende
  • Genstand for komedie er normalt ikke alt det alvorlige

To af Shakespeares komedier var Farce. De gik videre i deres basale komedie end hans andre komedier, og blev betragtet som de mere kontroversielle komedier for deres tid. Farces egenskaber omfatter:

  • Grunden har ikke meget stof
  • Clown figur "stuffs" i ​​ad-libs. "Farce" kommer fra den latinske farcire , hvilket betyder "at holde fast i eller ting".
  • Der er altid fysisk komedie, som plotslinjen ikke kræver
  • Indeholder grov eller uraffineret humor
  • Shakespeares to Farce-skuespil er The Taming of the Shrew og The Merry Wives of Windsor

I 200 år blev Shakespeares komedier tænkt som i alt 18 spiller; Imidlertid betragtede irske kritiker Edward Dowden i slutningen af ​​1800'erne Shakespeare's senere fem skuespil for at have kvaliteterne af middelalderlige romancer. Mange lærde enedes med Dowden, og derfor er disse skuespil ofte kategoriseret som romancer i stedet for komedier.


Shakespeare Romances


For dem, der er enige med Edward Dowden, skrev Shakespeare faktisk kun 13 komedier; hans senere fem spil indeholder karakteristika, der justerer dem mere med middelalderlige romancer. Faktisk på det tidspunkt blev de anset for at være "tragicomedies" snarere end rene komedier. Disse fem spil omfatter: De To Ædle Kinsmen, Cymbeline, Vinterens Tale, Tempestet og Periklene, Prinsen af ​​Dæk . Faktisk kategoriserer The Riverside Shakespeare den mest populære omfattende publikation af Shakespeare's værker på denne måde, så det kan være værd at tage fat på med eleverne eller præsentere disse værker som Romances frem for Comedies.

Shakespeare's Romances indeholdt følgende vigtige egenskaber:

  • Jalousi, konflikt, krig, oprør og andre sådanne potentielt tragiske situationer åbner skuespillet og løses ved slutningen af ​​det
  • Plots bevæger sig hurtigt og omfatter ofte usandsynlige situationer
  • Der er altid en kærlighed interesse, selv om det måske ikke er centralt for stykket
  • De fremtrædende mandlige figurer er typisk ældre end i andre Shakespeare-spiller
  • Elementer af den overnaturlige hjælp leder plottet
  • Tegn er normalt af adelen, og er malet i yderpunkterne af deres dyder eller korruption
  • Fokuseret på temaer i større målestok, som virkningen på folk som helhed, snarere end på individets karakterer og fiaskoer


Classroom Applications and Uses

Example Exercises:


  • Students identify genres of Shakespeare’s plays, with a character likeness on their storyboard to show the elements of the genre they have chosen.
  • Students create storyboards that show and explain each genre of Shakespeare’s plays, using specific quotes from the text that highlight elements of the category.

Teachers can customize the level of detail and number of cells required for projects based on available class time and resources.



Rubric for Shakespearean Plays

Shakespearean Plays Rubric
Examplary
33 Points
Proficient
27 Points
Commendable
22 Points
Try Again
17 Points
3 Genres of Play(s):
  • Tragedies
  • Comedies
  • Histories
  • Student shows advanced understanding of genre, and has ALL examples/characteristics listed.
    Student shows proficient understanding of genre, and has a many examples/characteristics listed.
    Student shows basic understanding of genre, and has a few examples/characteristics listed.
    Work does not correctly identify genre. Or is not complete enough to score.
    Provides Explanation Using Direct Quotes
    Student has clearly provided the reader with many quotes relating to the genre.
    Student has provided some examples of quotes that relate to the genre.
    Student has identified one or two quotes that can relate the genre.
    Student has not identified traits of genre in the story/ No quotes.
    Overall Presentation:
  • Grammar
  • Mechanics
  • Correctness
  • Appeal
  • Student has no errors, and the work is commendable.
    Student has very few errors. Good effort has been displayed.
    Student has some mechanical issues; little effort is shown; somewhat appealing; partially incomplete.
    Student has grammar, mechanical or correctness issues that prohibit the understanding; visually unappealing; mostly incomplete.


    Common Core Standards

    • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.9: Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare)
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.10: By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

      By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.9-10.7: Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus)
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.9: Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.10: By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

      By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently
    • ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.7: Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)


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